Yup’ik cuisine

” ‘Yup’ik cuisine’ ‘(Yupiit neqait’ ‘in Yup’ik language, literally “Yup’iks’ foods” or “Yup’iks ‘fishes”) refers to the Eskimo style traditional subsistence food and cuisine of the Yup’ ik people from the western and southwestern Alaska. Also known as ” ‘Cup’ik cuisine’ ” for the Chevak Cup’ik dialect speaking Eskimos of Chevak and ” ‘Cup’ig cuisine’ ” for the Nunivak Cup’ig dialect speaking Eskimos of Nunivak Island. This cuisine is traditionally based on meat, fish, sea and land mammals, and contains high levels of protein. Subsistence foods are considered by many to be nutritionally superior superfoods. Yup’ik diet is different from Alaskan Inupiat, Canadian Inuit, and Greenlandic diets. Fish as food (especially Salmonidae species, such as salmon and whitefish) are primary food for Yup’ik Eskimos. Both food and fish called neqa in Yup’ik. Food preparation techniques are fermentation and cooking, also uncooked raw. Cooking methods are baking, roasting, barbecuing, frying, smoking, boiling, and steaming. Food preservation methods are mostly dry and less often frozen. Dried fish is usually eaten with oil seal. The ulu gold fan-shaped knife used for cutting fish, meat, food, and such. The Yup’ik, like other Eskimo groups, were semi-nomadic hunter-fisher-gatherers who moved seasonally throughout the year within a reasonably well-defined territory to harvest fish, bird, sea and land mammal, berry and other renewable resources. Yup ‘ ik cuisine is based on traditional subsistence food harvests (hunting, fishing and berry gathering) supplemented by seasonal subsistence activities. The Yup’ik region is rich with waterfowl, fish, and sea and land mammals. The most important species of fish (seals, walruses, beluga whales), many species of fish (Pacific salmon, herring, halibut, flounder, trout, burbot, Alaska blackfish), shellfish, crabs, and seaweed. The Pacific salmon and freshwater whitefish, land mammals (moose, caribou), migratory waterfowl, bird eggs, berries, greens, and roots help the people throughout the region. The akutaq (Eskimo ice cream), tepa (stinkheads), mangtak (muktuk) some of the most well-known traditional Yup’ik delicacies. Traditional subsistence foods are mixed with what is commercially available. Today, the other half is purchased from subsistence activities, the other half is purchased from the commercial stores (market-foods, store-bought foods).

Both Yup’ik (and Siberian Yupik) and Iñupiaq cuisines are also known as Eskimo cuisine in Alaska. The oldest, most stable kitchen in North America is found above the Arctic Circle in Alaska. Long overlooked and pitifully misunderstood, the cuisine is rooted in Eastern Asia, and I ventured to Siberia, across Beringia, and on to Alaska during the last ice age, 50,000 to 15,000 years ago. The remoteness of the Inupiat and Yupik cultures accounts for their rich and intact food history. The Yupik-Inupiaq is probably about one thousand years ago. Eskimo cuisine do not have hot sauce. Arctic cuisine is a variation of Western or Eastern cuisines, but is composed of a high-protein diet without grains, supplemented with wild greens, roots and berries. Dietitians consider the diet nutritious and balanced with abundant vitamins, minerals, proteins and valuable unsaturated fats derived from a vast array of sea mammals, fish, fowl, wild plants and berries. Yup’ik cuisine is different from Alaskan Iñupiaq, Canadian Inuit, and Greenlandic diets. Food and beverage methods, including air drying and smoking, fermentation, and freezing. Some foods were eaten raw. Prehistoric Yup’ik Eskimos probably relied upon a mix of anadromous fish (salmon and char), terrestrial mammals (caribou), and marine mammals (seal and walrus) for subsistence foods. proteins and valuable unsaturated fats derived from a vast array of sea mammals, fish, fowl, wild plants and berries. Yup’ik cuisine is different from Alaskan Iñupiaq, Canadian Inuit, and Greenlandic diets. Food and beverage methods, including air drying and smoking, fermentation, and freezing. Some foods were eaten raw. Prehistoric Yup’ik Eskimos probably relied upon a mix of anadromous fish (salmon and char), terrestrial mammals (caribou), and marine mammals (seal and walrus) for subsistence foods. proteins and valuable unsaturated fats derived from a vast array of sea mammals, fish, fowl, wild plants and berries. Yup’ik cuisine is different from Alaskan Iñupiaq, Canadian Inuit, and Greenlandic diets. Food and beverage methods, including air drying and smoking, fermentation, and freezing. Some foods were eaten raw. Prehistoric Yup’ik Eskimos probably relied upon a mix of anadromous fish (salmon and char), terrestrial mammals (caribou), and marine mammals (seal and walrus) for subsistence foods. Food storage, fermentation and freezing, food storage, fermentation, and freezing. Some foods were eaten raw. Prehistoric Yup’ik Eskimos probably relied upon a mix of anadromous fish (salmon and char), terrestrial mammals (caribou), and marine mammals (seal and walrus) for subsistence foods. Food storage, fermentation and freezing, food storage, fermentation, and freezing. Some foods were eaten raw. Prehistoric Yup’ik Eskimos probably relied upon a mix of anadromous fish (salmon and char), terrestrial mammals (caribou), and marine mammals (seal and walrus) for subsistence foods.

The type of meal (neruciq) eaten at any given time by custom and location.

Food preparation techniques are uncooked raw (qassar- “to eat raw flesh or meat”, aripa- “to eat raw food”), fermentation, and cooking (kenir-). In the past, the Yup’ik nourishment consisted of raw meat, including its blood, and sometimes the meat was cooked. Food preservation Meat or Flesh (kemek in Yup’ik and Cup’ik, kemeg in Cup’ig) is primary main food.

Salmonidae in the family Salmonidae or in some places, non-salmon species, such as freshwater whitefish of the subfamily Coregoninae in the family Salmonidae, are primary main subsistence food for Yup’ik Eskimos. Both food and fish (and salmon) called neqa sg neqet pl in Yup’ik. Also for salmon called neqpcq ~ neqpiaq sg neqpiit ~ neqpiat pl) in Yup’ik, means literally “real, genuine food”. Purpose, hand food for Iñupiaq Eskimos is meat of whale and caribou (both food and meat called niqi in Iñupiaq, also for meat called niqipiaq “real, genuine food”). Salmon as food, herring as food, smelt, halibut, flounder, tomcod, pike, and capelin were gutted and air dried or smoked. The fish heads they made into qamiqurruk (cut and dried fish heads), and some they made into tepa (aged fish heads). Fish eggs (roe) were dried and stored.

Qassaq or Qassaulria is raw food, raw flesh or raw meat. Quaq, Inuktitut and Nunavik Inuttitut ᖁᐊᖅ quaq, South Baffin Kingarmiut xuaq, Labrador Inuttitut ĸuak, Greenlandic Nutaqaq is frozen raw fish. Qassayaaq or Qassayagaq (bed “baby raw fish”) frozen raw whitefish aged (fermented) before freezing and served frozen. Kumlaciq (in Yup’ik, kumlacir in Cup’ig) is frozen meat (of frozen fish, blackfish, and others as well) to be eaten in that state. Frozen food is a method for preserving fish or meat. Kumlaneq (in Yup’ik, kumlanaq in Hooper Bay-Chevak Cup’ik; but, kumlaner in Nunivak Cup’ig means “cold water, cold spring water; permafrost, frozen soil”) is frozen fish to be eaten in that state. Freezing of chinook and particularly salmon coho was relatively common. Chinook salmon were usually cut into smaller pieces before being placed on plastic Ziploc bags. Smaller species, such as chum, sockeye, coho, and pink salmon were frequently frozen uncut and whole. Kumlivirluuki is stored in freezer (kumlivik). Qercuqaq is hard frozen fish (blackfish or the like). Fermented fish is a traditional preparation of fish as fermented food. ” Ciss’uq (Ciss’ur ” in Nunivak Cup’ig) is fermented herring or capelin that has been buried underground for two weeks. Tepcuaraq (tepcuar (aq) or tepcuaraq kumlaneq) is eaten uncooked and frozen. Kumlaneq is aged spawned out salmon. Tepcuaraq kumlaneq is aged and frozen fish. The whole fish can be cleaned up or left intact, then buried under ground in a pit. If the fish are caught in the late fall, they are stored in a wooden box until they are aged, and then frozen. Tepcuaraq kumlaneq are eaten frozen with seal oil. Tepngayaaq is fermented a little frozen fish. Tepa (sg Tepet pl; lit. “odor, smell, aroma, scent”) is aged or fermented salmon fish head. Known as a fish head, commonly called stinkheads, stink heads, stinky heads. Tepas were considered a traditional special Yup’ik delicacy, but really the dish is something favored by Alaska Natives. Traditionally, most people continue to make tepa in the summer. Heads (pakegvissaaq is head of a fish pectoral fins) of chinook (king), sokeye (red), boyfriend (dog), and occasionally, coho (silver) salmon were prepared by burying them in the ground and allowed them to ferment before eating . The traditional way to get ready for a trip to the country with a wooden barrel covered with burlap material. Earthern pits lined with grass were used for this process. Salmon milt and eggs were added to the heads which were then covered with another layer of grass before being covered over with earth. The fermenting process takes from one to two weeks depending on the temperature of the ground. One salmon production unit prepared four pits of tepa. The pits measured approximately 18 inches deep and 2 feet square and contained approximately 75 salmon heads each. The heads of 1, 000 chinook, 726 sockeye, 1,246 chum, and 41 coho salmon were prepared by Kwethluk during 1986. One resident told the researchers, “to the Native it’s like candy or bubblegum, sweet and sour, in between the two.” However, with the introduction of plastic buckets, the danger of botulism has been increased and the importance of these types of containers has been reduced because of the “oldfashioned” methods. Heads stored underground are more likely to develop botulism than fish stored in fat. It was soon discovered that the traditional method of preparing for the safer world. Arumaarrluk (arumarrluk) or arumaarrluaq is poke fish or poked fish. Uqumaarrluk is poke fish aged and stored in seal oil. Uqumelnguq (in Yup’ik, uqumelzngur in Cup’ig) is smoked fish soaked in seal oil. Most of the salmon that was dried and smoked was eaten without any further preparation. Dried salmon sometimes eaten with oil seal. Niinamayak (in Yup’ik, ” nin’amayuk ” in Canineq Yup’ik, ” nin’amayag ” in Nunivak Cup’ig) is partially (half) dried aged (fermented) herring. ” Cin’aq ” (Yukon, Hooper Bay and Chevak, Lake Iliamna, and Nunivak) is cheese-like fish aged in a pit. This fish is usually dog ​​(chum) or king (chinook) salmon. The salmon whole (except the guts) aged through the process of burying them into the marshy, muddy lowland (maraq). The hole is dug until the permafrost is exposed. The bottom of the hole is then covered with dry grass, moss, and cardboard. Then several salmon are placed in. The top of the salmon is again covered with grass, then the remaining dug up groung is placed in the hole, tightly covering the contents. The aged salmon fish are usually eaten during the early winter, and eaten as a delicacy. Melucuaq (“small roe” bed) or Elquaq (“seaweed” bed) is herring roe-on-kelp, herring spawn-on-kelp, or herring eggs on kelp. This is the fertilized eggs or roe (qaarsat, meluk, imlauk) of the Pacific herring attached to eelgrass, seaweed or other submerged vegetation. Herring spawn-on-kelp is a favored food among the majority of households in Togiak, Manokotak, and Aleknagik. Additional households in Twin Hills, Dillingham, and other communities in Bristol Bay and elsewhere also eat spawn-on-kelp. Harvests of spawn-on-kelp took place between late April and early June. Spawn-on-kelp for survival, but rakes are occasionally used. Today, freezing and salting are the most common methods of preservation. In the past, spawn-on-kelp is preserved by drying and storing in open-weave grass sneakers (kuusqun, kuusqulluk). As in the past, people today prefer to eat spawn on kelp dipped in seal oil. The product of the harvest is commonly shared with relatives and friends in the harvesters’ home community during feats celebrating birthdays or holidays. In all four Nelson Island Communities (Tununak, Newtok, Toksook Bay, and Nightmute), much of the roe-on-kelp is consumed soon after it is harvested, but a portion of the harvest is preserved in seal-skin pokes filled with seal oil. Imlaucuaq (in Yup’ik of Nelson Island, Imlaucuar in Nunivak Cup’ig, “small roe” bed) is herring bag roe. The bag-roe (imlacuaq) is dried into product resembling golden chips. The dried roe is placed in containers and stored in the cache. It is soaked in water prior to eating but is also eaten dried. Nelson island communities. puyuqer (Cıp’ig) puyuqaq (Yup’ik) = smoked fish <div align = center> but a portion of the harvest is preserved in seal-skin pokes filled with seal oil. Imlaucuaq (in Yup’ik of Nelson Island, Imlaucuar in Nunivak Cup’ig, “small roe” bed) is herring bag roe. The bag-roe (imlacuaq) is dried into product resembling golden chips. The dried roe is placed in containers and stored in the cache. It is soaked in water prior to eating but is also eaten dried. Nelson island communities. puyuqer (Cıp’ig) puyuqaq (Yup’ik) = smoked fish <div align = center> but a portion of the harvest is preserved in seal-skin pokes filled with seal oil. Imlaucuaq (in Yup’ik of Nelson Island, Imlaucuar in Nunivak Cup’ig, “small roe” bed) is herring bag roe. The bag-roe (imlacuaq) is dried into product resembling golden chips. The dried roe is placed in containers and stored in the cache. It is soaked in water prior to eating but is also eaten dried. Nelson island communities. puyuqer (Cıp’ig) puyuqaq (Yup’ik) = smoked fish <div align = center> The dried roe is placed in containers and stored in the cache. It is soaked in water prior to eating but is also eaten dried. Nelson island communities. puyuqer (Cıp’ig) puyuqaq (Yup’ik) = smoked fish <div align = center> The dried roe is placed in containers and stored in the cache. It is soaked in water prior to eating but is also eaten dried. Nelson island communities. puyuqer (Cıp’ig) puyuqaq (Yup’ik) = smoked fish <div align = center>

Cooking (kenir-) is the process of preparing food for consumption with the use of heat. There are very many methods of cooking. These include roasting (maniar-), barbecuing, baking (uute-), frying (assali-, asgir-), smoking (puyurte-, aruvarqi-, aruvir-), boiling (ega-), and steaming (puyiar (ar) -). Keniraq (“cooked thing” bed) is fresh cooked fish or other food (also stew). Ugka is cooked fish or other food. Uuqnarliq (Kuskokwim), uuqnarniq (Yukon), uqnarliq (Hooper Bay and Chevak) is cooked blackfish. Germany (Hooper Bay and Chevak) is cooked blackfish fry. Maniaq (“roasted thing” bed) is roasted (barbecued) over an open fire fish. All parts of the fish except the guts are used. Over an open fire, a green branch or drift wood is used by inserting the stick in the mouth of the fish, then pushing the stick though the fish along the backbone until the emerges stick at the base of the tail. the stick is then propped up to the open fire to begin roasting. A modern alternative is to wrap the fish in foil and piece it in the camp fire. ” Teggsiq’er ” (in Nunivak Cup’ig) half dried herring (specifically made for cooking). Uutaq (“baked thing” bed) is baked fish (also, hard candy or other hard-baked food; bread) Salkuuyaq or ” Sal’kuuyaq ” (Yup’ik), ” Cal’kuuyaq ” (Cup (ik) (also, pan of meat or fish with potatoes, onions, etc.) is fresh fish baked whole or filleted after the entrails are removed. The meat of fish is slit in the middle lengthwise on the other side. Fish are placed in a baking dish, seasoned, oiled, and baked. Younger people seem to prefer this boiled fish. It is often eaten with boiled rice. It is derived from Russian жаркое (zharkóe) ‘roast’. Assaliaq (assaliq; lit. “fried thing”; also, pancake; other fried food; fry bread) is fresh fried fish. All parts of the fish except the entrails are used to prepare this dish. The fish is filleted, dipped in seasoned flour, or just seasoned with salt, and fried in oil. If we are looking for a little bit of food, we will be happy to help you, the backbone will be fried along with the filleted pieces. Heads are sometimes fried for the same reasons. Boiled rice is the favorite side dish with this meal. Middle aged and younger people enjoy this meal for the flavor. The verb assali- (to fry; to make pancakes or griddlecakes) is derived from Russian (roast) to roast, fry, broil, grill. Egaaq (“boiled thing” bed) is boiled fish or other food (also, by extension, any cooked fish or other food). Egamaarrluk (egamaarruk or egamaaq) is partially dried (not smoked) fish boiled for eating. The partially dried and boiled fish is only partially cooked. The half-dried salmon (egamaarrluk) which was cooked after being partially dried. Egamaarruk is split and half dried fish. These are prepared much like neqerrluk, but are not fully dried and may not be smoked. The half-dried fish are boiled and eaten with oil seal. The process has involved a similar process but the fish have been kept rather than sliced ​​into strips. Qamangatak (Egegik) is half-dried, boiled fish. Umlikaaq (or Umlikaq ~ Umlikqaq) or Ungllekaq (” ungllik’ar ” in Nunivak Cup’ig) is fresh boiled fish. All parts of the fish except for the entrails are used to prepare umlikqaq. Fresh fish that have been made to last the last day of the year because the meat is still firm. If a freshwater fish is caught with a hook, it is best to kill the fish by hitting its head soon after catching the meat will stay firm for cooking. The main ingredients of fish are cut-up, water, and salt which are boiled for about 29 minutes. This is a preferred food for elders because it is easy to make and is not strongly seasoned. First heads are good prepared as umlikqaq. Also, Ungelkaaq is fish steak cut transversely. Qageq (Qagret pl sg) is day-old cooked blackfish. Blackfish that has been boiled and unloaded in its cooled, jelled broth.

Marine mammals as food are only seals and beluga whale. Seals were the primary marine mammal hunted. Seal oil (uquq) was used by most households. Seal oil is a source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Dried fish is usually eaten with oil seal. tangviaq (Y), tangviarrluk (K, BB, HBC); tangviarrluggaq (NI, CAN) tangevkayak ~ tangevkayagaq (NI) tangeq (Y, NUN, NS) seal cracklings (strip of seal blubber from which oil has been rendered) Civanraq (sg civanrat pl) is fibrous leftover when oil has been obtained by heating diced seal blubber in a pan; crackling. Cuakayak is cooked seal lung. Uqiquq Passing out of bearded oil seal- The stripped long blubber for girls in the family and square cut blubber for men in the household. distributing seal and blubber and meat when someone has caught a seal; to give a “seal party” Beluga whale Muktuk (mangtak in Yukon, Unaliq-Pastuliq, Chevak, mangengtak in Bristol Bay) is the traditional Eskimo meal of frozen raw whale skin (dark epidermis) with attached subcutaneous fat (blubber). Aaqassaaq (Kotlik) is skin to be chewed to soften it; beluga blubber for eating. Taaqassaaq is skin for chewing. The hide and flippers of fresh walrus may be fermented to make taaqassaaq. Tamukassaaq is aged beluga skin. Kinengyak (sg kinengyiit pl) is a dried meat (caribou, moose). Dry moose meat was a favorite food among Chuathbaluk and Sleetmute inhabitants. Qemitaq (“strangled thing” bed) is muskrat or squirrel that has been hung by the neck to dry after being skinned.

The flesh of almost all the water in the environment has been eaten, or fresh or dried, usually with oil or a sourdock leaf soup. Even cormorants were considered edible and the meat of these fishy-tasting birds was dried or boiled when freshly killed. The eggs of waterfowl were sometimes sucked raw, but were usually boiled. Unlike Eskimos of the adjacent mainland, the Nunivaarmiut did not boil eggs hard and pack them in pokes for use during the winter. Instead, they were more likely to be consumed at the time of collecting, they were hard-boiled, still in their shells, placed in the kitchen.

Akutaq (in Yup’ik and Cup’ik, akutar in Cup’ig, akutuq in Iñupiaq) or Eskimo ice cream, also known as ” Yup’ik ice cream, Yupik ice cream, Inupiaq ice cream, Inupiat ice -cream, Alutiiq ice cream is a mixture of berries, sugar, seal oil, shortening, flaked fish flesh, snow, etc. Akutaq is most common Eskimo delicacy in Alaska, and only dessert in Eskimo cuisine. Both Eskimo ice cream and Indian ice cream are also known as native ice cream or Alaskan ice cream in Alaska. There are different types of akutaq. Akutaq is served on all special occasions. Like Yup’ik dance, akutaq is not an everyday dish. It is a special treat, an honor to receive and a responsibility to give. “Mouse akutak” is made from roots found in mouse holes. Only a portion of the mouse’s stored roots is taken, and some people replace the roots with something else the mouse can eat. The mousefood or mouse food (ugnaraat neqait) consists of the roots of various tundra plants which are hidden by underground burrows. Mousefood are grains gathered by a mouse and buried in shallow tunnels that sprout in the fall or spring rains. The tender green sprouts are often one of the first fresh foods available. Mousefood is eaten much like one would eat a small salad or fresh greens.

Bread (kelipaq Yukon, Kuskokwim, Hooper Bay and Chevak, Nelson Island, Canineq, Bristol Bay, Nushagak River, Lake Iliamna, Egegik, kelipar in Cup’ig from Russian хлеб khleb; qaqiaq bread in Yukon, Unaliq-Pastuliq from Iñupiaq qaqqiaq; ” qaq’uq in Yukon, Unaliq-Pastuliq from Iñupiaq qaqquq; kuv’aq in Yukon; tevurkaq in Unaliq-Pastuliq, Tuurkaq in Lower Yukon from English dough) The uutaq ” is hard candy or other hard-baked food; bread Flour (mukaaq in Yup’ik and Cup’ik, ” mukaar, muk’ar ” in Cup’ig from Russian мука muká) Fried bread (uqulek Hooper Bay and Chevak, uqurpag in Cup’ig; alatiq in Bristol Bay , alaciq in Egegik from Russian аладьи alád’i) The maniaq (Yup’ik and Cup’ik), maniar (Cup’ig) is pancake; fried bread; roasted thing Frybread or fry bread (” qu k k k k k Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native Native American homemade deep-fried biscuit, sometimes called “Eskimo donut” locally, known as “bannock” in Canada Both frybread and pancake are also known as asphy or assaliaq (Unaliq-Pastuliq). The verb assali- “to fry; to make pancakes or griddlecakes” from Russian жарить zhárit ‘The Eskimo donut is a deep-fried biscuit, a little like fry bread in donut form or fried bannock. Iñupiaq style Eskimo donut (aka “mukparuks”; muqpauraq gold uqsrukuaqtaq ~ uqsripkauqtaq in Iñupiaq) is pretzel-like Eskimo donut and basically a mixture of oil seal, flour, and water, baked and fried in oil seal. Pilot bread or cracker (” cugg’aliq ~ sugges’aliq from Russian sukhár ‘qaq’ulektaaq’ ‘in Yukon, Unasliq-Pastuliq), which is a major ingredient in the field of “pilot bread” (or “hardtack”) common in the North but not elsewhere. Cookie (cugg’alinguaq in Egegik) Easter bread (kulic’aaq from Russian кулич kulích) Russian Orthodox Easter bread.

Tea (caayuq in Yukon, Unaliq-Pastuliq, Hooper Bay and Chevak, Nelson Island, Upper Kuskokwim, Nushagak River, Iliamna Lake, Egegik, Lower Kuskokwim saayuq, Canineq, Bristol Bay, caayu Nunivak Cup’ig from Russian чай chay) Coffee (kuuvviaq in Yup’ik and Cup’ik, kuupiaq in Unaliq, kuuvviar in Cup’ig from Russian кофе kófe). The kuuvviapik ~ kuuvviapiaq is real coffee (in contrast to alqunaq or instant coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or ersatz coffee)

Nutrition is the selection of foods and their foods, and their ingestion to be assimilated by the body. Human nutrition is the provision of essential nutrients necessary to support life and health. Alaska subsistence communities are noted to obtain up to 97% of the omega-3 fatty acids through a subsistence diet. The cardiovascular risk of this disease is so severe that the American diet has reduced the incidence of mortality in the native population. Still, many market (store-bought) foods are high in fats, carbohydrates, and sodium; and these leads to increased weight gain, high cholesterol (hypercholesterolaemia), high blood pressure (hypertension), and chronic diseases. Increasing EPA and DHA may be important in chronic disease risk. Yup’ik Eskimos have a prevalence of type 2 diabetes of% 3.3, versus 7.7% in the US overall, even though the Yup’ik Eskimos have overweight / obesity levels similar to the rest of the US In a preliminary study initiated by the Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, elders were significantly enriched in δ 15 N, but depleted in δ 13 C, relative to younger participants.

Food storage Dried and smoked salmon were usually stored in smokehouses, freezers, or caches belonging to the salmon production unit. Salted fish were kept in buckets or wooden barrels and were stored in the house, entryway, cache, or smokehouse. Frozen salmon were kept in household freezers. Whole frozen salmon coho, used for dog food. Elevated cache or raised log cache, also raised cache or log storehouse (Qulvarvik sg qulvarviit pl [Yukon, Kuskokwim, Bristol Bay, Nushagak River, Lake Iliamna], qulrarvik [Egegik], qaivarrvik, neqivik [Hooper Bay-Chevak, Yukon, Nelson Island], Enekvak [Hooper Bay-Chevak], Mayurpik [Hooper Bay-Chevak], Mayurrvik [Nelson Island], Ellivik [Kuskokwim], elliwig [Nunivak]) is a bear-like safe food storage place designed to store food outdoors and prevent animals from accessing it. Elevated cache types include log or plank cache, open racks, platform caches, and tree caches. The high cabin-on-post was probably not an indigenous form among either Eskimos or Alaskan Athabaskans. Cabin-on-post caches are thought to have appeared in the 1870s. The cabin-on-post form may thus have been introduced by early traders, miners, or missionaries, who would have come up with them. Cabin-on-post caches are thought to have appeared in the 1870s. The cabin-on-post form may thus have been introduced by early traders, miners, or missionaries, who would have come up with them. Cabin-on-post caches are thought to have appeared in the 1870s. The cabin-on-post form may thus have been introduced by early traders, miners, or missionaries, who would have come up with them.

For thousands of years, dogs (qimugta sg qimugtek dual qimugtet pl in Yup’ik and Cup’ik, qimugta sg qimugteg dual qimugtet pl in Cup’ig) as sled dogs, have been tightly interwoven in the Yup’ik way of life, for transportation and companionship. Except for dogs, there were no significant domestic animals in the aboriginal times. Dog food (qimugcin, qimugcitkaq, qimugcessuun) refers to food for the dogs. Alunga is a traditional dog food and Alungun is dog-feeding trough. Salmon is the best food to feed (nerqe) dogs. Chum, coho, and pink salmon were the most frequently processed for dog food. In addition to dried salmon processed for dog food, whole uncut salmon and the heads, entrails, and backbones, have been used as dog food. Chum salmon harvested during August. Between late August and early October, salmon coho harvested for dog food. Beluga (especially late fall hunting) are used for feeding dogs in the Bristol Bay areas.

The Yup’ik, like other Eskimo groups, were semi-nomadic hunter-fisher-gatherers who moved seasonally throughout the year within a reasonably well-defined territory to harvest fish, bird, sea and land mammal, berry and other renewable resources. Subsistence is the practice of hunting, fishing, or gathering food to live on (not to resell), and is practiced by almost all the Yup’ik. In the inland, fishing for red salmon and gathering berries in the summer and hunting in the Yup’ik Villages. The Yup’ik region is rich with waterfowl, fish, and sea and land mammals. The most important species of fish (Pacific salmon, herring, halibut, flounder, trout, seals, walruses, beluga whales) burbot, Alaska blackfish), shellfish, crabs, and seaweed. The Pacific salmon and freshwater whitefish, land mammals (moose, caribou), migratory waterfowl, bird eggs, berries, greens, and roots help the people throughout the region. Subsistence foods are considered by many to be nutritionally superior superfoods. Wild salmon, game meat, and berries are harvested by Alaska, and can be compared to other local foods. Lonner (1986) compares the most high carbohydrate foods with “vital proteins and fats” in subsistence foods. In addition, the hunting and gathering of subsistence foods are many rural Alaskans if not spiritually and culturally necessary. The primary subsistence food in the Bristol Bay area and the most of rural Alaska is salmon, followed closely by large game hunting caribou and moose in the more inland areas, and marine mammal hunting in the coastal areas. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF & G) is the State of Alaska’s regulatory agency for the management of fish and wildlife resources. The US Fish and Wildlife Service’s mission is to help the Alaska Department of Fish and Game in its goals to “protect, conserve, and enhance” fish and wildlife resources-however, for the good of the nation at large. G) is the State of Alaska’s regulatory agency for the management of fish and wildlife resources. The US Fish and Wildlife Service’s mission is to help the Alaska Department of Fish and Game in its goals to “protect, conserve, and enhance” fish and wildlife resources-however, for the good of the nation at large. G) is the State of Alaska’s regulatory agency for the management of fish and wildlife resources. The US Fish and Wildlife Service’s mission is to help the Alaska Department of Fish and Game in its goals to “protect, conserve, and enhance” fish and wildlife resources-however, for the good of the nation at large.

Fish (neqa sg neqek dual neqet pl in Yup’ik and Cup’ik neqa or iqallug in Cup’ig) is one of the most common Yup’ik foods.

Marine mammals or sea mammals (imarpigmiutaq sg imarpigmiutaat pl in Yup’ik and Cup’ik, imarpillar in Cup’ig) are only fin-footed species, such as seals and walruses. There are some species of seals in Alaska that are referred to as ice seals because they are used for pupping, nursing, molting, and resting. This ice seals (ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals) are all used for subsistence by coastal Alaska Natives for food, oil, materials, clothing, and handicrafts.

Terrestrial mammals or land mammals (nunarmiutaq sg nunarmiutat pl in Yup’ik) are game animals and furbearers.

Birds (tengmiaq sg tengmiak dual tengmiat pl or yaqulek sg yaqulgek dual yaqulget pl in Yup’ik and Cup’ik, tengmiar sg tengmiag dual tengmiat pl in Cup’ig) Eggs of some species were collected. Waterfowl was prepared in a variety of ways such as boiling, baking, and in soups.

Berries and edible plants supplemented meals Plants foods also provided a variety of essential vitamins and nutrients to the diet. Berries are preserved by freezing. The most popular use of berries was when making akutaq, a whipped mixture of berries, sugar, and shortening or fat. Households also made jam, jellies, and breads from berries. Sourdock leaves were prepared by boiling, like spinach. Labrador tea was made to make tea and was consumed much like commercial teas. Green spruce needles were also used for tea. Chuathbaluk and Sleetmute residents have both historically and presently for food, medicine, and ceremonial purposes. Greens are most commonly harvested and processed by females, and may also participate in harvest activities. Most green plants are gathered in the winter village and fish campsites or in the race of local boat travel. Greens are one of two groups of women together for their morning or afternoon excursions. Formal organized gathering activities for the purpose of harvesting berries. Famine foods: reindeer lichen (tuntut neqait) was soaked in oil seal or mixed with cranberries to make it taste better. Indigenous plants are an integral part of the year-round diet of Eskimo people in addition to their incorporation in other facets of their life. Contrary to the popular perception of Eskimo people surviving solely on fish and meat, the Nunivak Cup’igutilated a large number of local plants for food, medicinal, and utilitarian purposes. On Nunivak, most indigenous plants were traditionally gathered by women when they were harvesting other available resources (eg, caribou, waterfowl, seal). While fresh spring greens provided a welcome addition to the diet, they were harvested throughout the year as they ripened, and used for some of them stored for winter use. With the melting of the island’s snow pack, local greens and berries not picked up during the previous fall’s harvest. Depending on the weather, the ice pack would have to start, Cup’ig families would leave their winter villages and move to spring seal camps. Cup’ig men would travel to sea mammals (ie, seals, walrus) while the women would spend much of their time harvesting resources (greens and seaweeds) and shellfish. Early spring seedlings included: marsh marigold (Caltha palustris), sour dock (Rumex arcticus), wild celery (Angelica lucida), wild lettuce (Draba borealis or ” D. hyperborea), wild parsnip (Ligusticum hultonii), wild rhubarb (Polygonum) viviparum), mountain sorrel (Oxyria digylla), Pallas buttercup (Ranunculus pallasii), and Labrador tea (Ledum pallustre decumbens ”). After the completion of the hunting season, families would move to summer fish camps. Fishes were the most prolific and essential subsistence resource for many Alaskan natives living in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta region and its harvest would occupy the majority of families’ efforts for several months. Traditional plants would continue to be harvested as they ripened. were eaten fresh or placed in the underground caches for temporary storage. By late summer / early fall, several berry species (eg, Rubus chamaemorus, R. arcticus, Empetrum nigrum) and local greens (cg, Rumex arcticus) were ready to be harvested and women and children would spend most days on the tundra resources. Most plants were available in a variety of local and their harvest did not dictate the family to specific camps. Plants that grew in abundance in specific areas, such as several types of cliff greens, that could be harvested at the same time (eg, fish, sandhill cranes). Greens such as Rumex arcticus (sour dock) could be found all over the place. Before placing the “wild spinach” or the dock in the caches, the cooked leaves would be drained of juice and the pit lined with woven grass mats. Berries were stored in much the same way, except that these pits would be lined with rocks. The berries would have no juice when removed, since they would have dried out while being stored underground. In the fall, they would return to their seasonal caches and transport their stored berries and greens to their winter village. Berries were stored in much the same way, except that these pits would be lined with rocks. The berries would have no juice when removed, since they would have dried out while being stored underground. In the fall, they would return to their seasonal caches and transport their stored berries and greens to their winter village. Berries were stored in much the same way, except that these pits would be lined with rocks. The berries would have no juice when removed, since they would have dried out while being stored underground. In the fall, they would return to their seasonal caches and transport their stored berries and greens to their winter village.

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