Veganism

The use of the drug is particularly important in the treatment of animals, particularly in diet, and the use of drugs. A follower of the diet is known as a vegan. Distinctions are sometimes made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans (or strict vegetarians) refrain from consuming animal products, not only meat but also eggs, dairy products and other animal-derived substances. The term ethical vegan is often applied to those who are not only following a vegan diet but aiming at the philosophy of other lives, and opposing the use of animals for any purpose. Another term is environmental veganism, which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable. Matthew Cole, “Veganism,” in Margaret Puskar-Pasewicz (ed.), Cultural Encyclopedia of Vegetarianism, ABC-Clio, 2010 (239-241), 241. Well-planned vegan diets can reduce the risk of some types of chronic disease, including heart disease. They are considered to be appropriate for all stages of life during pregnancy by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the British Dietetic Association. The German Society for Nutrition does not recommend vegan diets for children, nor pregnancy and breastfeeding. Vegan diets tend to be higher in dietary fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, and phytochemicals; and lower in dietary energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and vitamin B 12. Unbalanced vegan diets can lead to nutritional deficiencies that nullify any beneficial effects and cause serious health issues. Some of these deficiencies can only be prevented through the choice of fortified foods or the regular intake of dietary supplements. Vitamin B 12 supplementation is particularly important because of its deficiency and causes irreversible neurological damage. Donald Watson coined the term vegan in 1944 when he co-founded the Vegan Society in England. At first he used to mean “non-dairy vegetarian”, but from 1951 the Society defined it as “the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals”. Interest in veganism in the 2010s, especially in the latter half.

The origin of the English term vegetarian is unknown. The earliest-known is attributed to the actress Fanny Kemble, writing around 1839 in Georgia in the United States. In the Indian subcontinent, the Indus Valley Civilization in 3300-1300 BCE, in the Indian subcontinent, Archeological evidence suggests that the religion was followed, rather flourished, 5000 to 8000 years ago among the people of Indus Valley civilization, who lived in the geographical area now in Pakistan. Even within the vegetarian diet, strict dietary codes are specified that restrict the use of many products of plant origin. This makes the practice of vegetarianism at least 8000 years old, if not older, and a scientifically well established way of life. Early vegetarians included Mahavira and Acharya Kundakunda, the Tamil poet Valluvar, the Indian emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka; Greek philosophers such as Empedocles, Theophrastus, Plutarch, Plotinus, and Porphyry; and the Roman poet Ovid and the playwright Seneca the Younger. The Greek sage Pythagoras may have advocated an early form of strict vegetarianism, but his life is so obscure that it is disputed whether he ever advocates any form of vegetarianism. He loved his followers from eating beans and wearing woolen garments. Eudoxus of Cnidus, a student of Archytas and Plato, writes that “Pythagoras was distinguished by such purity and so-called killing and killers that he not only abstained from animal foods, but even kept his distance from cooks and hunters”. One of the earliest known vegans was the Arab poet al-Ma’arri (). Their arguments were based on health, the transmigration of souls, animal welfare, and the view-espoused by Porphyry in (“On Abstinence from Animal Food,”) -that if humans deserve justice, then so do animals. Vegetarianism established itself as a significant movement in 19th-century England and the United States. A minority of vegetarians. In 1813 the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley published A Vindication of Natural Diet, advocating “abstinence from animal food and spirituous liquors”, and in 1815 William Lambe, a London physician, claiming that his “water and vegetable diet” could cure anything from tuberculosis to acne. Lambe called animal food a “usual irritation”, and argued that “milk eating and eating a common goal of a common system, and they must stand or fall together”. Sylvester Graham ‘ s meatless Graham diet-mostly fruit, vegetables, water, and bread made with stoneground flour-became popular in the United States. Several vegan communities have been established around this time. In Massachusetts, Amos Bronson Alcott, father of the novelist Louisa May Alcott, opened the Temple School in 1834 and Fruitlands in 1844, and in England James Pierrepont Greaves founded the Concordium, a vegan community at Alcott House on Ham Common, in 1838.

In 1843, members of Alcott House created the British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and Abstinence from Animal Food, led by Sophia Chichester, a wealthy benefactor of Alcott House. Alcott House also helped to establish the UK Vegetarian Society, which held its first meeting in 1847 in Ramsgate, Kent. The Medical Times and Gazette in London reported in 1884: There are two kinds of Vegetarians-one an extreme form, the members of which no animal food whatever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish. The Vegetarian Society … belongs to the latter more moderate division. An article in the Society’s magazine, the Vegetarian Messenger, in 1851 discussed alternatives to shoe leather, which suggests the presence of vegans within the membership. By the 1886 publication of Henry S. Salt’s A Plea for Vegetarianism and Other Essays, he asserts that, “It is quite true that most-not-all-food reformers admitted to their diet such as milk, butter, cheese, and eggs. … “The first known cookbook, Rupert H. Wheldon’s No Animal Food: Two Essays and 100 Recipes, was published in London in 1910. The consumption of milk and eggs became a battleground over the following decades. There were regular discussions about it in the Vegetarian Messenger; it appears from the correspondence that many opponents of veganism cam from vegetarians. During a visit to London in 1931, Mahatma Gandhi -who had joined the Vegetarian Society s executive committee when he lived in London from 1888 to 1891-gave a speech to the Society arguing that it should be a meat-free diet as a matter of morality, not health. Lacto-vegetarians has the position of being vegetarian, and it has been considered that it can not be applied to the environment. This became the predominant view of the Vegetarian Society, which in 1935 stated: “The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency.” Lacto-vegetarians has the position of being vegetarian, and it has been considered that it can not be applied to the environment. This became the predominant view of the Vegetarian Society, which in 1935 stated: “The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency.” Lacto-vegetarians has the position of being vegetarian, and it has been considered that it can not be applied to the environment. This became the predominant view of the Vegetarian Society, which in 1935 stated: “The lacto-vegetarians, on the whole, do not defend the practice of consuming the dairy products except on the ground of expediency.”

In August 1944, several members of the Vegetarian Society asked that a section of its newsletter be devoted to non-dairy vegetarianism. Donald Watson, secretary of the Leicester branch, set up a new quarterly newsletter in November 1944, priced tuppence. <Ref name = WatsonInterviews> He called it The Vegan News. He thing the word vegan himself, based on “the beginning and end of vegetarian”, but he They suggest allvega, neo-vegetarian, dairyban, vitan, benevore, sanivores, and beaumangeur.The first edition attracted more than 100 letters, including from George Bernard Shaw, who to give up eggs and dairy. The new Vegan Society held its first meeting in early November at the Attic Club, 144 High Holborn, London. Those in attendance were Donald Watson, Elsie B. Shrigley, Fay K. Henderson, Alfred Hy Haffenden, Paul Spencer and Bernard Drake, with Mrs. Pataleewa (Barbara Moore, a Russian-British engineer) observing. World Vegan Day is held every 1 November to mark the founding of the Society and the month of November is considered by the Society to be World Vegan Month. The Vegan News changed its name to the Vegan in November 1945, by which time it had 500 subscribers. Colgate toothpaste, Kiwi polish shoe, Dawson & Owen stationery and Gloy glue. Vegan books appeared, including Vegan Recipes by Fay K. Henderson and Aids to a Vegan Diet for Children by Kathleen V. Mayo. The Vegan Society has made it clear that the use of animals for any purpose, not only in diet. In 1947, Watson wrote: “The vegan renounces it as superstitious as human life depends on the exploitation of these creatures whose feelings are much the same as our own …”. From 1948 The Vegan’s front page read: “Advocating living without exploitation”, and in 1951 the Society published its definition of veganism “the doctrine that man should live without exploiting animals.” In 1956, its Vice President, Leslie Cross, founded the Plantmilk Society; and in 1965, as Plantmilk Ltd. and later Plamil Foods, it began production of one of the first distributed soybeans in the Western world. The first vegan society in the United States was founded in 1948 by Catherine Nimmo and Rubin Abramowitz in California, who distributed Watson’s newsletter. In 1960, H. Jay Dinshah founded the American Vegan Society (AVS), linking veganism to the concept of ahimsa, “non-harming” in Sanskrit. According to Joanne Stepaniak, the word vegan was first published independently in 1962 by the Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, defined as “a vegetarian who eats no butter, eggs, cheese, or milk”.

In the 1960s and 1970s, a vegetarian food movement emerged as part of the counterculture in the United States that focused on diet, the environment, and a distrust of food producers, leading to increasing interest in organic gardening. One of the most influential vegetarian books of that time was Frances Moore Lappé’s 1971 text, Diet for a Small Planet. It’s more than three million copies and suggests “getting off the top of the food chain”. Dean Ornish, Caldwell Esselstyn, Neal Barnard, John A. McDougall, Michael Greger, and biochemist T. Colin Campbell, who argues that based on diets based on a group of scientists and doctors in the United States on animal fat and animal protein, such as the Western pattern diet, were detrimental to health. ” ‘ For health professionals’ interest in vegetarian diets in the last quarter of the 20th century: ‘Donna Maurer, Vegetarianism: Movement or Moment?’, Temple University Press, 2002, 23; for Ornish and Barnard, 99-101. For McDougall: Karen Iacobbo, Michael Iacobbo, Vegetarians and Vegans in America Today, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, 75.For Ornish, Campbell, Esselstyn, Barnard, and Greger: Kathy Freston, Veganist, Weinstein Publishing, 2011. Ornish, from 21 ; Campbell, 41; Esselstyn, 57; Barnard, 73; Greger, 109. They produced a series of books that recommend vegan or vegetarian diets, including McDougall’s The McDougall Plan (1983), John Robbins’ Diet for a New America (1987), which associated meat eating with environmental damage, and “Dr. Dean Ornish’s Reversing Heart Disease Program (1990). In 2003, two major North American dietitians’ associations indicated that well-planned vegan diets were suitable for all life stages. This is followed by the movie Earthlings (2005), Campbell’s The China Study (2005), Rory Freedman and Kim Barnouin’s Skinny Bitch (2005), Jonathan Safran Foer’s Eating Animals (2009), and the movie Forks over Knives (2011). For Freedman and Barnouin: Wright 2015, 104; for Earthlings: Wright 2015, 149. For Campbell and Esselstyn: ‘For Eating Animals:’ ‘For Esselystyn and Forks over Knives:’ In the 1980s, veganism became associated with punk subculture and ideologies, particularly straight edge, hardline, and hardcore punk in the United States; and anarcho-punk in the United Kingdom. This association continues on the 21st century,

The vegan diet became more mainstream in the 2010s, <ref name = “Early2010sMainstreaming”> <ref name = “Late2010sMainstreaming”> especially in the latter half. The European Parliament defined the meaning of vegan for food labels in 2010, in force. Chain restaurants developed their vegan processing. The English Wikipedia article on veganism was viewed 73,000 times in August 2009 goal 145,000 times in August 2013. Articles on veganism were viewed in the English, French, German, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish Wikipedias. In 2016, Google searches for “vegan” increased by 90%, up from a 32% increase the previous year. The global mock-meats market has increased by between 2013 and 2010, and in the United States by eight percent between 2012 and 2015, to $ 553 million a year. The Vegetarian Butcher (), the first known vegetarian butcher shop, selling mock meats, opened in the Netherlands in 2010, while America’s first vegan butcher, the Herbivorous Butcher, opened in Minneapolis in 2016. By 2016, forty-nine percent of Americans were 91 percent still drank milk milk. <ref name = MintelApril2016> In the United Kingdom, the milk market grew by 155 percent in two years, from 36 million liters in 2011 to 92 million in 2013. The country has in 2011, Europe’s first vegan supermarkets appeared in Germany: Vegilicious in Dortmund and Veganz in Berlin. In China and the United Kingdom, China and the United States, <http://www.worldbank.org/index.php> <ref name = “HongKong2017”> China’s vegan market is estimated to rise by 17 percent between 2015 and 2020, <ref name = “MarketGrowth2016” which is expected to be the fastest growing period in that period. This exceeds the growth rate in the second and third fastest growing markets, United Arab Emirates (10.6%) and Australia (9.6%) respectively. In total, the largest share of global customers is currently in Asia Pacific with 9 percent of people following a vegan diet. Countering the image of self-deprivation veganism was promoted as glamorous; in 2015, the editor of Yahoo! Food declared that it had become “a thing”. Celebrities, athletes, and politicians vegan diets-some seriously, some part-time. The idea of ​​the “flexi-vegan” earned currency: New York Times columnist Mark Bittman, in VB6 (2013), recommended eating vegan food until 6 pm. In 2013, the Oktoberfest in Munich-traditionally a meat-heavy affair-offered vegan dishes for the first time in its 200-year history. Critics of veganism questioned the evolutionary legitimacy and health effects of a vegan diet, and pointed to longstanding philosophical traditions which held humans higher than other animals. Celebrity chef Anthony Bourdain wrote in 2000 that “[v] egetarians, and their Hezbollah-like splinter-faction, the vegans,

Vegans do not eat beef, pork, poultry, fowl, game, seafood animal, eggs, dairy, or any other animal products. Dietary vegans might use animal products in clothing, toiletries, and similar. Ethical veganism extends to the use of animal products and the use of animals. The British Vegan Society will certify a product only if it is possible that it is possible to make a choice of animal testing. An important concern is the case of medications, which are routinely tested on animals to ensure they are effective and safe, and may also contain animal ingredients, such as lactose, gelatin, or stearates. There may be no alternatives to prescription or these alternatives may be unsuitable, less effective, or more adverse side effects. Experimentation with laboratory animals is also used for the safety of vaccines, food additives, cosmetics, household products, workplace chemicals, and many other substances. Philosopher Gary Steiner argues that it is not possible to be entirely vegan, because it is “deeply and imperceptibly woven into the fabric of the human society”. Animal products in common use include albumen, allantoin, beeswax, blood, bone char, bone china, carmine, casein, castoreum, cochineal, elastin, oil emulsion, gelatin, honey, isinglass, keratin, lactic acid, lanolin, bacon, rennet, retinol, shellac, squalene, tallow (including sodium tallowate), whey, and yellow grease. Some of these are chemical compounds that can be derived from animal products, plants, or petrochemicals. Allantoin, lactic acid, retinol, and squalene, for example, can be vegan. These products and their origins are not always included in the list of ingredients. Some vegans will not buy woollen jumpers, silk scarves, leather shoes, duck feathers, pearl jewelery, seashells, ordinary soap (usually made of animal fat), or cosmetics that contain animal products. They avoid certain vaccines; The flu vaccine, for example, is usually grown in eggs, an effective alternative, Flublok, is widely available in the United States. Non-vegan items acquired before they became vegan might be donated to charity or used until worn out. Some vegan clothes, in particular leather alternatives,

The difference between a vegan and a vegetarian is that vegans exclude dairy products. Ethical vegan prevent them on the premise that their production causes animal suffering and premature death. In egg production, most male chicks are culled because they do not lay eggs. To obtain milk from dairy cattle, they are made to induce lactation; they are kept lactating for three to seven years, then slaughtered. Female calves are separated from their mothers within 24 hours of birth, and fed to the milk. Male calves are slaughtered at birth, sent for production, or reared for beef. Vegan groups disagree about insect products. Neither the Vegan Society nor the American Vegan Society considers honey, silk, and other insect products as suitable for vegans,

Due to the environmental impact of meat-based pet food and the ethical problems it poses for vegans, <ref name = “PetFoodEthics”> some vegans extend their philosophy to include the diets of pets. <ref name = “VeganPets”> This is particularly true for domesticated cats and dogs, for which vegan pet food is both available and nutritionally-complete, such as Vegepet. However, it is important to note that carnivores are obligatory for carnivores. Furthermore, nutritionally-complete vegan pet diets are comparable to meat-based ones for cats and dogs, many commercial vegan pet food brands do not meet the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) regulations for nutritional adequacy.

Vegan diets are based on grains and other seeds, vegetables (especially beans), fruits, vegetables, edible mushrooms, and nuts. Meatless products based on soybeans (tofu), or wheat-based seitan are sources of plant protein, commonly in the form of vegetarian sausage, thin, and veggie burgers. Dishes based on soybeans are a staple of vegan diets because soybeans are a complete protein; this means they contain all the essential amino acids for humans and can be relied on entirely for protein intake. They are consumed most often in the form of soy milk and tofu (bean curd), which is mixed with a coagulant. Tofu comes in a variety of textures, depending on water, from firm, medium firm and extra firm for stews and stir-fries to soft or silken for salad dressings, desserts and shakes. Soy is also eaten in the form of tempered and textured vegetable protein (TVP); Also known as textured soy protein (TSP), the latter is often used in pasta sauces.

Plant milks-such as soy milk, milk milks, milk milks and milk coconut milk are used in place of milk or cheese. Soy milk provides around 7 g of protein per cup (240 mL or 8 fl oz), compared with 8 g of protein per cup of cow’s milk. Almond milk is lower in dietary energy, carbohydrates, and protein. Soy milk should not be used as a replacement for breast milk for babies. Babies who are not breastfed can be fed formula formula, normally based on milk or soy. The latter is known as a soy-based infant formula or SBIF. Butter and margarine can be substituted with alternate vegan products. Vegan cheeses are made from seeds, such as sesame and sunflower; nuts, such as cashew, pine nut, and almond; and soybeans, coconut oil, nutritional yeast, tapioca, and rice, among other ingredients; and can replicate the meltability of dairy cheese. Nutritional yeast is a common substitute for the taste of cheese in vegan recipes. Cheese substitutes can be made at home, including from nuts, such as cashews.

Commercial egg substitutes are available for cooking and baking. The protein in thickened eggs and other ingredients. For pancakes a tablespoon of baking powder can be used instead of eggs. Silken (soft) tofu and mashed potato can also be used. Aquafaba from chickpeas can be used as an egg replacement and whipped like egg whites.

Raw veganism, including veganism and raw foodism, excludes all animal products and food cooked above. C. A raw vegan diet includes vegetables, fruits, nuts, grain and vegetables sprouts, seeds, and sea vegetables. There are many variations of the diet, including fruitarianism.

Proteins are composed of amino acids. Vegans obtain all their protein from plants, omnivores usually a third, and ovo-lacto vegetarians half. Beans (consumed as tofu, tempeh, textured vegetable protein, soy milk, and edamame), peas, peanuts, black beans, and chickpeas (the latter often eaten as hummus); such as quinoa, brown rice, corn, barley, bulgur, and wheat (the latter eaten as bread and seitan); and nuts and seeds. Combinations that contain high amounts of all essential amino acids include rice and beans, corn and beans, and hummus and whole wheat pita. Soy beans and quinoa are known to contain all the essential amino acids. Mr. Messina and V. Messina, ” The United States Department of Agriculture ruled that soy protein (tofu) may replace meat protein in the National School Lunch Program. <a href = “http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbf Nutrition.” -> The American Dietetic Association said in 2009 that a variety of plant foods can be used to reduce the risk of premature infarction. Mangels et al. write that there is little reason to advise vegans to increase their protein intake; aim erring on the side of caution,

Vitamin B 12 is a bacterial product needed for cell division, the formation and maturation of red blood cells, the synthesis of DNA, and normal nerve function. A deficiency may cause megaloblastic anemia and neurological damage, and if untreated, may lead to death. The high content of folate in vegetarian diets may mask the hematological symptoms of vitamin B 12 deficiency, so it may be determined that neurological signs, which can be irreversible, such as neuropsychiatric abnormalities, neuropathy, dementia and, occasionally , atrophy of optic nerves. Vegans are sometimes failing to obtain sufficient B 12 from their diet because of non-fortified foods, only those. The best source is ruminant food. Vegetarians are also at risk, as are older people and those with certain medical conditions. A 2013 study found that “vegetarians develop B 12 depletion or deficiency regardless of demographic characteristics, place of residence, age, or type of vegetarian diet. 12. ” B 12 is produced in nature only by certain bacteria and archaea; it is not made by any animal, fungus, or plant. It is made in their guts, but it is made in the colon which is too far from the small intestine, where uptake of B 12 occurs. Ruminants, such as cows and sheep, taken up by bacteria in their guts. Animals store vitamin B 12 in liver and muscle and some pass the vitamin in their eggs and milk; meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of B 12. It has been suggested that nori (an edible seaweed), tempeh (a fermented soybean food), and nutritional sources of vitamin B 12. In 2016, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics established that nori, fermented foods (such as tempeh), spirulina, chlorella algae, and unfortified nutritional vitamins are not adequate sources of vitamin B 12. B 12. Otherwise, vitamin B 12 deficiency may be demonstrated in cases of vegan infants, children, and adults. Vitamin B 12 is produced by industrial fermentation of various kinds of bacteria, which makes forms of cyanocobalamin, which are further processed to include the ingredients and fortified foods. The Pseudomonas denitrificans strain was most commonly used. It is grown in a medium containing sucrose, yeast extract, and several metallic salts. To increase vitamin production, it is supplemented with sugar beet molasses, gold, frequently, with choline. Certain brands of B 12 supplements are vegan.

Calcium is needed to maintain metabolic functions, including muscle function, vascular contraction and vasodilation, nerve transmission, intracellular signaling, and hormonal secretion. Ninety-nine percent of the body’s calcium is stored in the bones and teeth. High-calcium foods may include fortified tofu. Plant sources include broccoli, turnip, bok choy, collards, and kale; the bioavailability of calcium in spinach is poor. Vegans should make sure they consume vitamin D enough, which is needed for calcium absorption. A 2007 report based on the Oxford cohort of the European Forensic Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which began in 1993, suggests that vegans have an increased risk of bone fractures over meat eaters and vegetarians, because of lower dietary calcium intake. The study found that vegans at least 525 mg of calcium daily have a risk of fractures similar to that of other groups. A 2009 study found the bone mineral density (BMD) of vegans was 96 percent that of omnivores, but deemed the difference clinically insignificant.

Vitamin D (calciferol) is needed for several functions, including calcium absorption, bone mineralization, and bone growth. Without it bones can become thin and brittle; with calcium it offers protection against osteoporosis. Vitamin D is produced in the body when ultraviolet rays from the sun hit the skin; UVB radiation does not penetrate glass. It is present in salmon, tuna, mackerel and cod liver oil, with small amounts in cheese, egg yolks, and beef liver, and in some mushrooms. Most vegan diets contain little or no vitamin D without fortified food. People with a little sun exposure may need supplements. The extent to which sun exposure is sufficient, it is sufficient, and it is safe to use. According to the National Institutes of Health, most people can get adequate vitamin D from sunlight in the spring, summer, and fall, even in the far north. They report that some researchers recommended 5-30 minutes of sun exposure with a difference between 10 am and 3 pm, at least twice a week. Tanning beds emitting 2-6% UVB radiation have a similar effect, though tanning is inadvisable. Vitamin D comes in two forms. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3) is usually found in the skin after exposure to the sun or consumed from food, usually from animal sources. Ergocalciferol (vitamin D 2) is derived from ergosterol from UV-exposed mushrooms or yeast and is suitable for vegans. When produced industrially as supplements, D 3 vitamin is typically derived from lanolin in sheep’s wool. HOWEVER, both provitamins and vitamins D 2 and D 3 have been discovered in spp. (especially) and these edible lichen are harvested in the wild for producing vitamin D 3. <ref name = lichenD3> Conflicting studies have suggested that the two forms of vitamin D may or may not be bioequivalent. According to researchers from the Institute of Medicine, the differences between vitamins D 2 and D 3 do not affect metabolism, both function as prohormones, and when activated in the body.

In some cases, the zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals. There are concerns about the bioavailability of iron from plant foods, estimated by some researchers to be 5-15 percent compared to 18 percent from a nonvegetarian diet. Iron-deficiency anemia is found as often in nonvegetarians as in vegetarians, though studies have shown vegetarians’ iron stores to be lower. Mangels et al. Source: Journal of Food and Nutrition, Plant Genetic Resources, Journal of Food and Nutrition, Journal of the United States, Journal of Plant Genetics, and 33 mg for premenopausal using oral contraceptives. Supplements should be used with caution after consulting because iron can accumulate in the body and cause damage to the organ. This is particularly true of anyone with hemochromatosis, a relatively common condition that can remain undiagnosed. High-iron vegan foods include soybeans, blackstrap molasses, black beans, lentils, chickpeas, spinach, tempeh, tofu, and lima beans. Iron absorption can be enhanced by eating a source of vitamin C at the same time, such as half a cup of cauliflower or five fluid ounces of orange juice. Herbal teas can inhibit iron absorption, as can spices that contain such tannins as turmeric, coriander, chiles, and tamarind. lentils, chickpeas, spinach, tempeh, tofu, and lima beans. Iron absorption can be enhanced by eating a source of vitamin C at the same time, such as half a cup of cauliflower or five fluid ounces of orange juice. Herbal teas can inhibit iron absorption, as can spices that contain such tannins as turmeric, coriander, chiles, and tamarind. lentils, chickpeas, spinach, tempeh, tofu, and lima beans. Iron absorption can be enhanced by eating a source of vitamin C at the same time, such as half a cup of cauliflower or five fluid ounces of orange juice. Herbal teas can inhibit iron absorption, as can spices that contain such tannins as turmeric, coriander, chiles, and tamarind.

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, is found in leafy green vegetables and nuts, and in vegetable oils such as canola and flaxseed oil. EPA and DHA, the other primary omega-3 fatty acids, are found only in animal products and algae. Iodine supplementation may be necessary where, where and when, it is iodized at low levels, or where, as in Britain and Ireland, these products are relied upon for low levels of the soil. Iodine can be obtained from most vegan multivitamins or regular consumption of seaweeds, such as kelp.

Some studies have been done in a comparison of omnivore, vegetarian, and vegan diets, which make it difficult to discern whether or not they should be included in the diet. In preliminary clinical research, vegan diets lowered the risk of type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and ischemic heart disease. Cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and glucose levels, possibly indicating lower risk of ischemic heart disease and carcinoma, but having no effect on mortality, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and mortality from cancer. Eliminating all animal products can increase the risk of deficiencies of vitamins B 12 and D, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin B 12 deficiency occurs in up to 80% of vegans that does not supplement vitamin B 12. Vegans might be at risk Lack of B 12 inhibits normal function of the nervous system.

The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada states that they are appropriate for all life stages, including pregnancy and lactation. They suggest that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders, but that their adoption may serve to camouflage a disorder rather than cause one. The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council similarly recognizes a well-planned vegan diet as viable for any age. The British National Health Service’s United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) MyPlate. The USDA allows tofu to replace meat in the National School Lunch Program. The German Society for Nutrition does not recommend a diet for babies, children and adolescents,

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada consider well-planned vegetarian and vegan diets “appropriate for individuals during all stages of lifecycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes”. The German Society for Nutrition, a child, a baby, and a child. The position of the Canadian Pediatric Society is that of a healthy alternative to all stages of fetal, infant, child and adolescent growth care should be given to nutrient intake. , particularly protein, vitamins B 12 and D, essential fatty acids, iron, zinc, and calcium According to a 2015 systematic review, There is little evidence available about vegetarian and vegan diets during pregnancy, and a lack of randomized studies. It concluded: “Within these limits, vegan-vegetarian diets may be considered safe in pregnancy, provided that attention is paid to vitamin and trace element requirements.” A daily source of vitamin B is important for pregnant and lactating vegans, as it is vitamin D if there is concern about low sun exposure. Researchers have reported cases of vitamin B deficiency in lactating vegetarian mothers that have been linked to deficiencies and neurological disorders in their children. A doctor or registered dietitian should be consulted about taking supplements during pregnancy.

Vegans do not use personal care products or household cleaners that contain animal products. Animal ingredients are ubiquitous because they are cheap. After animals are slaughtered for meat, the leftovers are made through the rendering process, and some of that material, particularly the fat, ends up in toiletries. Common ingredients include tallow in soap and collagen-derived glycerin, used as a lubricant and humectant in many haircare products, moisturizers, shaving foams, soaps and toothpastes. Lanolin from sheep’s wool is often found in lip balm and moisturizers. Stearic acid is a common ingredient in the face creams, shaving foam and shampoos; as with glycerin, it can be plant-based but is usually animal-derived. Lactic acid, an alpha-hydroxy acid derived from animal milk, is used in moisturizers, as is going to-or-so-planting or cows’ urine-in shampoos, moisturizers, and toothpaste. Carmine from scale insects, such as the female cochineal, is used in food and cosmetics to produce red and pink shades. Animal Ingredients A to Z (2004) and Veganissimo A to Z (2013) list which ingredients might be animal-derived. The British Vegan Society’s sunflower logo and PETA’s bunny logo is the vegan certified product, which includes no animal testing. The Leaping Bunny logo signals no animal testing, but it might not be vegan. The Vegan Society is a product of the United States, which is not a product of its origin, nor has it been tested or tested. Australia’s Choose Cruelty Free. Beauty Without Cruelty, founded in 1959, was one of the earliest manufacturers and certifiers of animal-free personal care products. Several international companies produce animal-free products, including clothes, shoes, fashion items, and candles. Vegans avoid clothing that incorporates silk, wool (including lambswool, shearling, cashmere, angora, mohair, and a number of other fine wools), fur, feathers, pearls, animal-derived dyes, leather, snakeskin, and any other kind of skin gold animal product. Most leather clothing is made from cow skins. Vegans look at the purchase of leather, especially from the market. Hemp, linen, cotton, canvas, polyester, artificial leather (pleather), rubber, and vinyl. Leather alternatives can come from such materials, piña (from pineapples), and mushroom leather.

Ethical veganism is based on opposition to speciesism, the assignment of value to individuals on the basis of species membership alone. Divisions within animal rights theory include the utilitarian, protectionist approach, which are better conditions for animals. It also pertains to the rights-based abolitionism, which seeks to end human ownership of non-humans. Abolitionists argue that protectionism serves to make the public feel that it can be morally unproblematic (the “happy meat” position). Law professor Gary Francione, an abolitionist, argues that they all feel that they should not have the right to have property, and that they should not have the baseline for anyone who believes that non-humans have intrinsic moral value. Philosopher Tom Regan, also a rights theorist, argues that animals possess value as “subjects-of-a-life”, because they have beliefs, desires, memory and the ability to initiate action in pursuit of goals. Regan argues that the right of the subjects of pleasure, convenience and the economic interests of farmers are not weighty enough. Philosopher Peter Singer, a protectionist and utilitarian, argues that there is no moral or logical justification for failing to count animal suffering as a consequence when making decisions, and that killing animals should be rejected unless necessary for survival. Despite this, he writes that “ethical thinking can be sensitive to circumstances”, and that he is “not too concerned about trivial offenses”. An argument proposed by Bruce Friedrich, also a protectionist, holds that strict adherence to veganism, because it focuses on personal purity, rather than encouraging people to give up whatever animal products they can. For France, this is similar to arguing that, because human-rights abuses can not be eliminated, we should not defend human rights in situations we control. By failing to ask a question, it is possible that the animal products, we reinforce that the moral rights of animals are a matter of convenience, he argues. He concludes from this point of view that the protectionist position fails on its own consequentialist terms. Philosopher Val Plumwood is “subtly human-centred”, an example of what is called “human / nature dualism” Ethical vegans want to admit non-humans into the category of special protection, rather than recognizing the “ecological embeddedness” of all. Plumwood wrote that animal food may be an “unnecessary evil” from the perspective of the consumer who “draws on the whole planet for nutritional needs” -and she strongly opposed farming-but for anyone relying on a much smaller ecosystem, it is very difficult or impossible to be vegan. Bioethicist Ben Mepham, in his review of the Francione and Garner’s book The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition or Regulation ?, concludes that “if the aim of ethics is to choose the right, or best, race of action in specific circumstances ‘all things considered’ , it is arguable that adherence to such an absolutist is simplistic and open to serious self-contradictions. But, as Farlie puts it, with characteristic panache: “to conclude that the veganism is the only ethical response” is to take a big leap into a very muddy pond. Necessary methods for sustaining the welfare of the animals and their animals malnutrition, abuse, and exploitation, the focus on attitudes and conditions in western developed countries, leaving behind the rights and interests of society, economy, culture, and some cases, survival rely on a symbiotic relationship with animals. David Pearce, a transhumanist philosopher, has argued that it has a “hedonistic imperative” to not merely avoid cruelty to animals or abolish the ownership of non-human animals, but also to redesign the global ecosystem such that wild animal suffering ceases to exist. In the pursuit of abolishing itself, Pearce promotes predation elimination among animals and the global analogous cross-species of the welfare state. Fertility regulation could maintain herbivore populations at sustainable levels, “a more civilized and compassionate policy option than famine, predation, and disease”. <Ref name = Dvorsky2014> The growing number of vegans and vegetarians in the transhumanism movement has been attributed to Pearce’s influence. A growing political philosophy that incorporates veganism as part of its revolutionary praxis is veganarchism, which seeks “total abolition” or “total liberation” for all animals, including humans. Veganarchists identify the state as unnecessary and harmful to animals, both human and non-human, and advocate for the adoption of a vegan lifestyle within a stateless society. The term was popularized in 1995 with Brian A. Dominick’s pamphlet Animal Liberation and Social Revolution, described as “a vegan perspective on anarchism or anarchist perspective on veganism”.

Environmental vegans focus on conservation, rejecting the use of animal products on the premise that fishing, hunting, trapping and farming, are particularly environmentally unsustainable. In 2010, Paul Watson of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society called pigs and chicken “major aquatic predators”, because livestock eat 40 percent of the fish that are caught. Sea Shepherd ships have been vegan for environmental reasons. This specific form of veganism has its own way of life. According to a 2006 United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization report, ” Livestock’s Long Shadow ”, 222 million tonnes of meat were produced globally in 1999. The report posits that around 26 percent of the planet ‘ s terrestrial surface is devoted to livestock grazing. In the United States, billion birds were killed globally. The subject of livestock farming (mostly of chickens and pigs) affects the air, land, soil, water, biodiversity and climate change. Livestock consumed 1.174 million tonnes of food in 2002-including 7.6 million tonnes of fishmeal and 670 million tonnes of cereals, one-third of the global cereal harvest-and in 2001 consumed 45 million tonnes of roots and vegetables and 17 million tonnes of pulses. , 37 percent of methane, 65 percent of nitrous oxide, and 68 percent of ammonia. Livestock waste emitted 30 million tons of ammonia a year, which is involved in the production of acid rain. <! – this source is too old: Greenhouse gas emissions are not limited to animal husbandry. Plant agriculture such as rice cultivation can also cause environmental problems. -> A 2017 study published in the journal Carbon Balance and Management found the world’s largest agricultural methane emissions are 11% higher than previous estimates based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. A June 2018 study published in Science asserted that the adoption of plant-based diets in the United States alone could cut greenhouse gas emissions by 61% to 73%, and the overall adoption of a vegan diet would reduce the use of agricultural land by 75%. %. A 2010 Report, Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production, submitted that animal products ” Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 22 (2), June 2007, 145-153. A 2015 study published in Science of the Total Environment, which is a significant driver of deforestation and habitat destruction, with species-rich habitats being converted to agriculture for livestock production. Brian Machovia, KJ Feeley, WJ Ripple, “Biodiversity Conservation: The Key to Reducing Consumption,” Science of The Total Environment, 536, 1 December 2015, 419-431. A 2017 study by the World Wildlife Fund found that 60% of biodiversity loss can be attributed to the vast scale of farming lands and species. In November 2017, 15,364 world scientists signed a warning for humanity calling for, among other things, “promoting dietary shifts towards mostly plant-based foods”. A 2018 report published in PNAS asserted that farmers in the United States could sustain the growth of the world.

Carol J. Adams, one of the leading activists and scholars of feminist animals. Her first work, The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory (1990), sparked what was to become a movement in animal rights as she noted the relationship between feminism and meat consumption. Since the release of the Sexual Politics of Meat, Adams has published several essays, books, and keynote addresses. Adams ideals are carried out thoroughly, and in one of his speeches, “Why feminist-vegan now?” -adapted from her original address at the “Minding Animals” conference in Newcastle, Australia (2009) -Adams states that “the idea that there was a connection between feminism and vegetarianism came to [her] in October 1974”, illustrating that the concept of feminist veganism has been around for nearly half a century. Other authors have also paralleled Adams’ ideas while expanding on them. Angella Duvnjak states in “Joining the Dots: Some Reflections on Feminist-Vegan Political Practice and Choice” (http://www.youtube.com/watch . Carrie Hamilton who makes the connection to sex workers and animal reproductive rights. Many other scholars of feminist vegan philosophy continue to add to the arguments that Adams, Duvnjak, and Hamilton have brought forth. Angella Duvnjak states in “Joining the Dots: Some Reflections on Feminist-Vegan Political Practice and Choice” (http://www.youtube.com/watch . Carrie Hamilton who makes the connection to sex workers and animal reproductive rights. Many other scholars of feminist vegan philosophy continue to add to the arguments that Adams, Duvnjak, and Hamilton have brought forth. Angella Duvnjak states in “Joining the Dots: Some Reflections on Feminist-Vegan Political Practice and Choice” (http://www.youtube.com/watch . Carrie Hamilton who makes the connection to sex workers and animal reproductive rights. Many other scholars of feminist vegan philosophy continue to add to the arguments that Adams, Duvnjak, and Hamilton have brought forth. But the connection seemed more than obvious to her and other scholars (2011). Carrie Hamilton who makes the connection to sex workers and animal reproductive rights. Many other scholars of feminist vegan philosophy continue to add to the arguments that Adams, Duvnjak, and Hamilton have brought forth. But the connection seemed more than obvious to her and other scholars (2011). Carrie Hamilton who makes the connection to sex workers and animal reproductive rights. Many other scholars of feminist vegan philosophy continue to add to the arguments that Adams, Duvnjak, and Hamilton have brought forth.

Some of the main concepts of feminist veganism is that of the connection between violence and oppression of animals. For example, Marjorie Spiegal compares the consumption or servitude of animals for human gain to slavery. Animals are purchased from a breeder, used for personal gain-or for further breeding or manual labor and then discarded, most frequently as food. This capitalist uses of animals for personal gain and strength, despite the work of animal rights activists and ecofriendly feminists. Similar notions that suggest animals-like fish, for example-feel less bread are brought forth today as a justification for animal cruelty. The feminist side of the argument, however, suggests that there is no rationalization for treating animals with lesser reverence than human lives, even if the theory that animals are less capable of verifiable bread. Another connection between feminism and veganism is the parallel of violence against women and other minorities and the violence against animals. Animal rights activists closely related animal cruelty to feminist issues. This connection is even more important than those used by trafficked persons. Hamilton points out that violent “rapists sometimes exhibit behavior that seems to be patterned on the mutilation of animals” there is a tendency between violence towards rape victims and animal cruelty previously exhibited by the rapist. The violence connection is not limited to sexual acts, however. It is a common fact the prevalence of violence against animals is more defined in those with psychopathic disorders. This mirroring of violence against animals and violence against weaker animals leads to the pioneers of feminist veganism to suggest that there is a link between violence against humans and animals, supporting feminist veganism.

Another way that feminist veganism relates to feminist thoughts is through the capitalist means of the production itself. Carol J. Adams mentions Barbara Noske talking about “meat eating as the ultimate capitalist product, because it takes so much to make the product, it uses up so many resources”. The capitalization of resources for meat production is claimed to be better for other food products than for the impact on the environment.

Multiple symbols have been developed to represent veganism. Several are used on consumer packaging, including the Vegan Society trademark and Vegan Action logo, to indicate products without animal-derived ingredients. Various symbols may also be used by members of the community to represent their identity and in the course of animal rights activism, such as a vegan flag.

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