United States raw milk debate

The raw milk debate in the US is about food safety and the health benefits of raw (unpasteurized and non-homogenized) milk and whether regulators should prohibit the sale of raw milk. raw milk. Raw milk represents a small proportion of the milk consumption of the general population of the United States. However, some claim that demand for raw milk has “increased significantly in recent years”. Advocates of raw milk claim a variety of health benefits from untreated dairy products; Government officials and scientists point out that raw milk carries significant food safety risks and that claims about the health benefits of raw milk are unsupported by scientific evidence.

Unprocessed milk consists of milk fat globules suspended in an aqueous base containing dissolved proteins, sugars, vitamins and minerals. If the blood cells are large enough, as with the unprocessed milk of the cows, the fat globules float upwards until they form a distinct layer of cream at the top. Some animals, such as goats, produce smaller fat globules that remain mixed unless mechanically separated by centrifugation. Homogenization is a process that reduces the size of fat globules by forcing pressurized hot milk through small holes, causing turbulence that breaks large fat globules so that they remain suspended rather than separate in a layer of fat. cream at the top. The purpose of homogenization is to make the milk more convenient to process, store and consume, eliminating the need to shake or shake the milk container to remix the separated cream layer and increase the shelf life of the product. Those who oppose homogenization say that decreasing the size of fat globules can have unhealthy effects, including allowing steroid and protein hormones to bypass normal digestion and increase levels in the body. Concerns that uptake of protein xanthine oxidase is increased by homogenization, leading to hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), were raised in the 1970s. Subsequent research “did not corroborate and, in in many cases, refuted “a plausible effect of xanthine oxidase from homogenized milk on cardiovascular disease. Scientific studies are somewhat limited but currently do not support the claims that milk homogenization affects the development of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, milk allergy and milk intolerance, diabetes mellitus I or type II diabetes.

Pasteurization is a sanitation process in which milk is briefly heated to a temperature high enough to kill the pathogens, followed by rapid cooling. While different times and temperatures can be used by different processors, pasteurization is most often done with heating at 161 degrees Fahrenheit (71.7 degrees Celsius) for 15 seconds. The milk is tested after pasteurization to confirm that the bacteria have been removed to an acceptable level. Pasteurization kills pathogenic bacteria that may be present in milk, including those that cause tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes), Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), brucellosis (Brucella), campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter), salmonellosis (Salmonella) and several other food-borne diseases (eg Escherichia coli O157: H7). Pasteurization may not kill some resistant bacteria, which can eventually cause sourcing and deterioration of fresh milk. UHT pasteurization (Ultra High Temperature) is a more extreme form of pasteurization of the heating milk at a temperature high enough to kill also the deteriorating organisms. Pasteurization is widely accepted to improve the safety of dairy products by reducing exposure to pathogens. Opponents of pasteurization argue that unpasteurized milk has benefits associated with superior taste, nutritional quality and health benefits over pasteurized milk. While pasteurization of milk kills bacterial pathogens, other species of bacteria that can have beneficial health effects are also destroyed. Pasteurization of cow’s milk destroys any potential pathogen and increases shelf life. During pasteurization, however, these bacterialactic acid is mostly destroyed. A 2009 systematic review of the food safety of unpasteurized milk concluded that the scientific evidence for the health benefit claims is “missing or non-existent” and that the risks associated with the epidemics resulting from the consumption of raw milk are “considerably higher”.

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