Side stitch (also called side sore, side cramp, side cramp, side sticker, or simply a stitch) is an intense throbbing pain under the lower edge of the rib cage that occurs during exercise . It is also called exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Some people think that this abdominal pain can be caused by the internal organs (such as the liver and stomach) coming down on the diaphragm, but this theory is incompatible with its swimming frequency, which involves practically no downward force on these organs. If the pain is present only during exercise and completely absent at rest, in a healthy person, it does not require investigation.
There is no known reason for a point to happen. There are, however, a number of popular theories as to what can cause, increase the chances of, or otherwise exacerbate a point. An important theory is that pain can be caused by increased blood flow to the liver or spleen. Increasing the heart rate during exercise will force extra red blood cells into the liver, which can cause temporary hepatomegaly and portal hypertension. Temporary hepatomegaly and portal hypertension may restrict blood flow through the portal vein of the liver, slowing blood flow to the rest of the body; This is why the cramps of most runners are felt on the right side near the liver. A plausible mechanism for pain is that elevated internal pressure in the liver or spleen restricts blood flow, causing hypoxia. There are other theories concerning lateral points than simple stretching of visceral ligaments due to vertical translation and repeated shaking. These theories include diaphragmatic ischemia, thoracic spine imbalances, parietal peritoneum irritation, and tension on visceral ligaments by a fluid-laden bowel. Another theory points to superficial breathing as a possible cause of a point and a possible preventive measure is to adjust how much in a runner’s footsteps, or to reduce the frequency of inspirations (with an increase in inspiratory capacity) . The reasons for the variety of theories include, in particular, the prevalence of ETAP during bathing. Most of the time, the lateral points occur on the right side of the body. This may be because the largest organ of the abdominal cavity, the liver, is on this side. Some athletes also report pain at the tip of the scapula. It is thought that this is because it is a site of referred pain for the diaphragm via the phrenic nerve. When the side point is on the right side, a published tip is to try to exhale when the left foot lands. There is also a belief that an imbalance of electrolytes (such as calcium, potassium and sodium) in the blood may also contribute to the lateral point.