Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease

Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and public authorities agree that a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the American Dietetic Association, the Dietitians of Canada, the British Dietetic Association, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority. All of these organizations recommend restricting consumption of saturated fats to reduce that risk. HOWEVER,

The initial connection between arteriosclerosis and dietary cholesterol was made by the Russian pathologist Nikolay Anichkov, prior to World War I. Another significant contribution to the debate was made by the Dutch physician (internist) Cornelis de Langen, who noticed the correlation between nutritional cholesterol intake and incidence of gallstones (and soon after, arteriosclerosis and other “Western diseases”) in the Javanese population in 1916. De Langen reported on the findings of the International Society of Geographic Pathology in 1935. These observations were made on patients admitted to the municipal hospital in Jakarta. Consequently, it studies this phenomenon in defined populations outside the hospital. He showed that the traditional Javanese diet, very poor in cholesterol and other lipids, was associated with a low level of blood cholesterol and a low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), while the prevalence of CVD in Europeans in Java, living on the Western diet, was significantly higher. De Langen’s colleague, Isidor Snapper, made a similar observation in North China in 1940. Since de Langen published only in Dutch, his work remains unknown to most of the international scientific community.

The hypothesis that saturated fat has a detrimental effect on human health prominence in the 1950s as a result of the work of Ancel Keys, a US nutritional scientist. At that time in the US, the incidence of heart disease has been increasing, for reasons that were not clear. Keys postulated a correlation between circulating cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease, and initiated a study of Minnesota businessmen (the first prospective study of CVD). Keys presented his diet-lipid-heart disease hypothesis at a 1955 expert meeting of the World Health Organization in Geneva. In response to criticism at the conference, he set out to conduct the years-long Seven Countries Study. Ancel Keys joined the nutrition committee of the American Heart Association and successfully promulgated its idea that in 1961, with the result that the AHA has become the first group in the world to advise cutting back on saturated fat (and dietary cholesterol) to prevent heart disease. This historic recommendation was reported on the cover of Time Magazine in that same year.

A completely reduced polyunsaturated fats is unlikely to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) events, CHD mortality or total mortality. The results of this study were poorly controlled (eg, failing to control for other lifestyle factors) that were included in earlier meta-analyzes. A 2017 review by the American Heart Association recommended that saturated fat intake and increased intake of monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats could lower risk of cardiovascular disease by about 30%. A 2015 also found no association between saturated fat consumption and risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or death. A 2015 systematic review of randomized control trials by the Cochrane Library found that reducing saturated fat intake in a 17% reduction in cardiovascular events, and that replacing saturated fats with cis unsaturated fats in particular is beneficial. It concluded: “In a systematic review of meta- of 530,525 participants in the study of dietary intake of fatty acids, and the results of the study of the dietary intake of fatty acids. “Current evidence does not clearly support the development of chronic saturated fatty acids.” A 2014 systematic review en fran├žais The results of this study are based on the findings of the European Commission on the Prevention of Diabetes and Infectious Diseases. Whereas, their results, especially research is necessary, especially in people who are initially healthy. Until the picture becomes clearer, Experts recommend people to the current guidelines on fat consumption. Indeed, Nita Forouhi, one of the coauthors of the meta-analysis, stated to the BBC that headlines proclaiming that “butter is back” are “an oversimplification, we never said that” and noted that the study was not able to distinguish between differing effects of reducing saturated fat intake were used as substitutes. “While doing research is going to be a little bit more than just going to be the first time we’ve done it, we’re going to have a license, based on this preliminary research butter is back. ” Moreover, Walter Willett warned that the conclusions of the meta-analysis are seriously misleading, contains major errors and omissions, and should be retracted. In response to the Chowdhury review, Willett et al. commented that:

The 2009 European Society of Cardiology Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine states that, in cohort studies, the positive relationship between fat intake and CVDs was linked to their saturated fatty acid content. 2007’s Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation states that large epidemiological studies have shown associations between the intake of saturated fatty acids and CHD mortality. According to the 2007 Critical Pathways in Cardiovascular Medicine, substituting unsaturated fat for saturated fat can lower LDL cholesterol without lowering HDL cholesterol. This dietary protein is one of several types of diet that has been associated with reduced cardiovascular events in two randomized controlled trials. The 2003 second edition of Evidence-based Cardiology in ‘PartII: Prevention of cardiovascular diseases’ recommends a low intake of SFA, less than 7% of daily calories, and intake of foods rich in myristic and palmitic acids should be especially reduced. The recommendation was made to be supported by the best grade of available evidence.

The British Dietetic Association: Guidelines for the Reduction of Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with CVD. The 2007 position statement of the American Dietetic Association and the Dieticians of Canada holds that epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between the intake of saturated fatty acid and the incidence of coronary heart disease. The Harvard School of Public Health holds that saturated fats should be replaced with cis monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, but that they should not be replaced with refined carbohydrates. The 2007 position statement of the American Dietetic Association and the Dieticians of Canada holds that epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between the intake of saturated fatty acid and the incidence of coronary heart disease. The Harvard School of Public Health holds that saturated fats should be replaced with cis monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, but that they should not be replaced with refined carbohydrates. The 2007 position statement of the American Dietetic Association and the Dieticians of Canada holds that epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between the intake of saturated fatty acid and the incidence of coronary heart disease. The Harvard School of Public Health holds that saturated fats should be replaced with cis monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, but that they should not be replaced with refined carbohydrates.

The Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation assesses the extent to which LDL levels are saturated fat thresholds, which are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Similar positions are held by the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the National Heart Foundation of Australia, the National Heart Foundation of New Zealand, and the World Heart Federation. The Irish Heart Foundation states that saturated fats can raise LDL cholesterol and increase the chance of developing heart disease or stroke.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 produced by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the US Department of Health and Human Services says it needs more than enough dietary sources. It says higher levels of saturated fats are associated with higher levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein “bad” cholesterol and reduced saturated fat intake intake. The guidelines are based on the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) report that incorporated the results of the study of 12 studies from 2004 to 2009 by the Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL) part of the USDA’s Evidence Analysis Library Division Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. The NEL concluded that there was “strong”

A 2010 debate at the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics’ 93rd conference stated: “Considering saturated fat, the key point agreed upon by the panel and scientific community at large is that researchers agree that replacing saturated fat with healthy polyunsaturated fats is beneficial for health and cardiovascular disease. ” Recommendations for dieticians emphasized using mono- and polyunsaturated fats whenever possible, avoiding trans fats. Further, “The evidence against saturated fat may be as strong as dietary guidelines [it is clear] that PUFAs (especially) and MUFAs are healthy fats”, and that while there is room for saturated fats within the diet, but ” [they] should not be viewed as good for you “. A 2010 review found that the risk of coronary heart disease is reduced when saturated fatty acids are substituted with polyunsaturated fatty acids, but there is no clear benefit in replacing saturated fatty acids with carbohydrates or monounsaturated fatty acids. A 2009 review found that the best evidence showed reduced intake of saturated fat decreased risk for coronary heart disease. Another 2009 review found that epidemiological evidence suggests a negative influence on vascular function from saturated fat, but that the experimental evidence did not support this convincingly. A 2009 review found that the best evidence showed reduced intake of saturated fat decreased risk for coronary heart disease. Another 2009 review found that epidemiological evidence suggests a negative influence on vascular function from saturated fat, but that the experimental evidence did not support this convincingly. A 2009 review found that the best evidence showed reduced intake of saturated fat decreased risk for coronary heart disease. Another 2009 review found that epidemiological evidence suggests a negative influence on vascular function from saturated fat, but that the experimental evidence did not support this convincingly.

An opinion critical of dietary guidelines which recommended a lower intake of saturated fat metastases and meta-analyzes that found insignificant effects on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases by saturated fat reduction. The criticism itself has been criticized and corrected. A 2009 scientific conference reported that despite the contribution of saturated fatty acids to the diet of the diet, there is no clear evidence that food consumption is consistently associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The 2010 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was reported for the purpose of the use of an incomplete body of knowledge, namely inaccurately representing, interpreting, or summarizing the literature; and drawing conclusions and / or making recommendations that do not reflect the limitations or controversies in the scientific field “The evidence of the evidence of dietary saturated fat with increased risk of cardiovascular disease is inconclusive. This paper is more likely to be saturated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, but this conclusion was disputed, and the authors of the meta-analysis noted that “A critical question is what should be used to replace saturated fat. … Epidemiologic Studies and Randomized Clinical Trials with Substantial Substance Use and Substance Abuse, but not carbohydrates, is beneficial for coronary heart disease. “

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