Minnesota Starvation Experiment

The Minnesota Starvation Experiment, also known as the Minnesota Semi-Starvation Experiment, the Minnesota Starvation-Recovery Experiment and the Starvation Study, was a clinical study performed at the University of Minnesota between November 19, 1944 and December 20, 1945. The investigation was The effects of severe dietary restrictions on the physiological and psychological effects of severe dietary restriction. The motivation of the study was twofold: first, to produce a definitive treatise on the subject of human starvation based on a laboratory simulation of severe famine and, second, to use the scientific results and Asia at the end of World War II. It was recognized early in 1944 that millions of people were in grave danger of mass starvation as a result of the conflict, and the information was needed regarding the effects of semi-starvation and the impact of various rehabilitation strategies-if postwar relief efforts were be effective. The study was developed in collaboration with the Civilian Public Service (CPS) and the Selective Service System and used by CPS volunteers. The study was divided into three phases: A twelve-week control phase, where physiological and psychological observations were collected to establish a baseline for each subject; a 24-week starvation phase, during which the caloric intake of each subject was drastically reduced-causing each participant to lose an average of 25% of their pre-starvation body weight; and finally a recovery phase, in which various rehabilitative diets have been tried to re-nourish the volunteers. Two subjects were dismissed for failing to maintain the dietary restrictions during the early phase of the experiment, and the data for two others were used in the analysis of the results. In 1950, Ancel Keys and his colleagues published the results of the Minnesota Starvation Experiment in a two-volume, 1.385 page text entitled The Biology of Human Starvation (University of Minnesota Press). While this is a very important step in the past, it has had a significant impact on the postwar recovery efforts, which have been produced and used extensively by the United States. in which various rehabilitative diets were tried to re-nourish the volunteers. Two subjects were dismissed for failing to maintain the dietary restrictions during the early phase of the experiment, and the data for two others were used in the analysis of the results. In 1950, Ancel Keys and his colleagues published the results of the Minnesota Starvation Experiment in a two-volume, 1.385 page text entitled The Biology of Human Starvation (University of Minnesota Press). While this is a very important step in the past, it has had a significant impact on the postwar recovery efforts, which have been produced and used extensively by the United States. in which various rehabilitative diets were tried to re-nourish the volunteers. Two subjects were dismissed for failing to maintain the dietary restrictions during the early phase of the experiment, and the data for two others were used in the analysis of the results. In 1950, Ancel Keys and his colleagues published the results of the Minnesota Starvation Experiment in a two-volume, 1.385 page text entitled The Biology of Human Starvation (University of Minnesota Press). While this is a very important step in the past, it has had a significant impact on the postwar recovery efforts, which have been produced and used extensively by the United States. Two subjects were dismissed for failing to maintain the dietary restrictions during the early phase of the experiment, and the data for two others were used in the analysis of the results. In 1950, Ancel Keys and his colleagues published the results of the Minnesota Starvation Experiment in a two-volume, 1.385 page text entitled The Biology of Human Starvation (University of Minnesota Press). While this is a very important step in the past, it has had a significant impact on the postwar recovery efforts, which have been produced and used extensively by the United States. Two subjects were dismissed for failing to maintain the dietary restrictions during the early phase of the experiment, and the data for two others were used in the analysis of the results. In 1950, Ancel Keys and his colleagues published the results of the Minnesota Starvation Experiment in a two-volume, 1.385 page text entitled The Biology of Human Starvation (University of Minnesota Press). While this is a very important step in the past, it has had a significant impact on the postwar recovery efforts, which have been produced and used extensively by the United States. and the data for two others were not used in the analysis of the results. In 1950, Ancel Keys and his colleagues published the results of the Minnesota Starvation Experiment in a two-volume, 1.385 page text entitled The Biology of Human Starvation (University of Minnesota Press). While this is a very important step in the past, it has had a significant impact on the postwar recovery efforts, which have been produced and used extensively by the United States. and the data for two others were not used in the analysis of the results. In 1950, Ancel Keys and his colleagues published the results of the Minnesota Starvation Experiment in a two-volume, 1.385 page text entitled The Biology of Human Starvation (University of Minnesota Press). While this is a very important step in the past, it has had a significant impact on the postwar recovery efforts, which have been produced and used extensively by the United States.

Ancel Keys was the lead investigator of the Minnesota Starvation Experiment. He was responsible for the general supervision of the activities in the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene and was directly responsible for the X-ray analysis and administrative work for the project. Keys founded the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene at the University of Minnesota in 1940 after leaving positions at Harvard’s Fatigue Laboratory and the Mayo Clinic. Starting in 1941, he served as a special assistant to the US Secretary of War and worked with the Army to develop rations for troops in combat (K-rations). Keys served as Director for the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene for 26 years, and retired in 1972 after a distinguished 36-year career at the University of Minnesota. Olaf Mickelsen was responsible for the chemical analyzes conducted in the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene during the Starvation Study, and the daily diet of the CPS subjects-including the supervision of the kitchen and its staff. During the study, he was an associate professor of biochemistry and physiological hygiene at the University of Minnesota and received his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1939. Henry Longstreet Taylor in the Minnesota Starvation Experiment, maintaining the morality of the participants and their involvement in the study. During the study he collaborated with Austin Henschel in conducting the physical performance, breathing and postural tests. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1941 and joined the faculty at the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene, where he held a joint appointment with the Department of Physiology. His research concentrated on cardiovascular physiology, temperature regulation, metabolism and nutrition, aging and cardiovascular epidemiology. Austin Henschel shared the responsibility of screening the CPS volunteers with Taylor for the Minnesota Starvation Experiment and, in addition, had the burden of the morphology and scheduling of all tests and measurements of the subjects during the course of the study. He was a member of the faculty in the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene and the Department of Medicine at the University of Minnesota. Josef Brožek (1914-2004) was responsible for psychological studies during the Starvation Study, including the psychomotor tests, anthropometric measurements and statistical analysis of the results. Brožek received his PhD from Charles University in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1937. He emigrated to the United States in 1939 and joined the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene at the University of Minnesota in 1941, where he served in a succession of posts over a 17-year period. His research in the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene concerned malnutrition and behavior, visual illumination and performance, and aging. where he served in a succession of posts over a 17-year period. His research in the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene concerned malnutrition and behavior, visual illumination and performance, and aging. where he served in a succession of posts over a 17-year period. His research in the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene concerned malnutrition and behavior, visual illumination and performance, and aging.

An essential ingredient for the successful execution of the Minnesota Starvation Experimentation of a sufficient number of healthy volunteers to the subject of the long-term invasion of privacy, nutritional deprivation and physical and mental hardship necessary to complete the study. From the outset, the experiment was planned in cooperation with the Civilian Public Service and the Selective Service System, with the intention of using the principles of public service. Keys obtained approval from the War Department to select participants from the CPS. In early 1944, a recruitment brochure was drafted and distributed within the network of CPS work camps throughout the United States. Over 400 men volunteered to participate in the study as an alternative to military service; of these, about 100 were selected for detailed examination. Drs. Taylor, Brožek, and Henschel from the Minnesota Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene traveled to various CPS units to interview the potential candidates and administer physical and psychological tests to the volunteers. The results of this study are of particular relevance to the clinical and physical management of the disease, and to the extent to which the patient is able to cope with the disease. The subjects were all white, with ages ranging from 22 to 33 years old. Of the 36 volunteer subjects, 15 were members of the Historic Peace Churches (Mennonites, Church of the Brethren and Quakers). Others were there, including Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, and one each Jewish, Episcopalian, Evangelical & Reformed, Disciples of Christ, Congregational, and Evangelical Mission Covenant, along with two participants without a declared religion. The 36 CPS participants in the Minnesota Starvation Experiment were: William Anderson, Harold Blickenstaff, Wendell Burrous, Edward Cowles, George Ebeling, Carlyle Frederick, Jasper Garner, Lester Glick, James Graham, Earl Heckman, Roscoe Hinkle, Max Kampelman, Sam Legg, Phillip Liljengren, Howard Lutz, McCullagh Robert, William McReynolds, Dan Miller, Wesley Miller, Richard Mundy, Daniel Peacock, James Plaugher, Woodrow Rainwater, Sanders Donald, Cedric (Henry) Scholberg, Charles Smith,

The primary objective of the Minnesota Starvation Experiment is to study the physical and psychological effects of prolonged, starvation-like semi-onset on healthy men, as well as their subsequent recovery from this condition. To achieve these goals, the 12-month study has been divided into distinct phases. For each subject, the weight versus time plot has been predicted to be of particular importance, the prediction weight loss curve, whose characteristics have been determined before the beginning of the experiment. The postulated curves turned out to be quite predictive for most subjects. If a subject was going to be cut in any given week, his caloric intake for the next week would be adjusted, by varying the amount of bread and potatoes, to bring him back to the curve; however, the required adjustments were usually minor. The shapes of the curves were chosen “based on the concept that the rate of weight reduction would be relative to a relative plateau” at the final weight. For each subject, the weight vs. time curve was taken to be quadratic in time (in fact, an upward-opening parabola) with the minimum located at 24 weeks, at which point the weight is supposed to be equal to the final target body weight (the minimum is where the curve has zero slope; this corresponds to the “plateau” mentioned above). Mathematically, this means that the curve for each subject is given by was expected to walk 22 mi each week and required to keep a personal diary. An extensive battery of tests has been periodically administered, including the collection of metabolic and physical measurements; X-ray examinations; treadmill performance; and intelligence and psychological evaluation.

The full report of results from the Minnesota Starvation Experiment was published in 1950 in a two-volume, 1.385-page text entitled The Biology of Human Starvation (University of Minnesota Press). The 50-chapter work contains an extensive analysis of the physiological and psychological data collected during the study, and a comprehensive literature review. Among the findings from the study was the confirmation that prolonged hypotension, increased hysteria and hypochondriasis were measured using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Indeed, most of the experienced periods of severe emotional distress and depression. There were extreme reactions to the psychological effects of self-mutilation (one subject amputated three fingers of an axis, though the subject was unsure if he had done so intentionally or accidentally). Participants exhibited a concern with food, both during the period and the rehabilitation phase. Sexual interest was drastically reduced, and the volunteers showed signs of social withdrawal and isolation. The participants reported a decline in concentration, comprehension and judgments capabilities, and the standardized tests showed no actual signs of diminished capacity. It should not, however, be taken as an indication that capacity to work, study and learn will not be affected by starvation or intensive dieting. There have been marked declines in physiological processes indicative of decreases in each subject’s basal metabolic rate (the energy required by the body in a state of rest), reflected in reduced body temperature, breathing and heart rate. Some of the subjects exhibited edema in their extremities, presumably due to decreased levels of plasma proteins as the body’s ability to construct key proteins.

One of the crucial observations of the Minnesota Starvation Experienced by a number of researchers in the nutritional sciences Ancel Keys-is that the physical effects of the induced semi-starvation during the study eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. As a result of the study, it has been postulated that many of the profound psychological and psychological effects of these disorders may result from undernutrition.

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