A low-protein diet is a diet in which people reduce their intake of protein. Phenylketonuria and Homocystinuria and reduced protein levels have been used for low-protein diet and have been used in pregnancy. Low protein consumption appears to alter the risk of bone breakage, presumably through changes in calcium homeostasis. Therefore, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes low-protein, because the amount and composition of protein for an individual suffering from phenylketonuria would be substantially reduced by one suffering homocystinuria. The amount used by those with liver disease would still be in balance. Amino acids that are excess to requirement can not be stored, but must be modified by the removal of the amine group. As it occurs in the liver and kidneys, it may be advisable to eat less protein. Due to the sulfur content of the amino acids methionine and cysteine, excess of these amino acids leads to the production of acid through sulphate ions. These sulphate ions can be neutralized by calcium ions from bone, which may lead to calcium loss. This potential is leading to reduction in bone mineral density over time. Individuals suffering from phenylketonuria lack the enzyme to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine so low levels of this amino acid need to be provided in the diet. Homocystinuria is an inherited disorder involving the metabolism of the amino acid methionine leading to the accumulation of homocysteine. B6 in the diet. Low-protein diets are in vogue among some members of the general public because of the impact of protein intake on insulin / insulin-like growth factor 1 (IIS) signaling and the direct sensing of amino acid availability by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Two systems are implicated in longevity and cancer proliferation. 80:10:10 80:10:10 diet, other attempts to modulate IIS are through intermittent fasting and the 5: 2 diet. Low-protein diets are in vogue among some members of the general public because of the impact of protein intake on insulin / insulin-like growth factor 1 (IIS) signaling and the direct sensing of amino acid availability by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Two systems are implicated in longevity and cancer proliferation. 80:10:10 80:10:10 diet, other attempts to modulate IIS are through intermittent fasting and the 5: 2 diet. Low-protein diets are in vogue among some members of the general public because of the impact of protein intake on insulin / insulin-like growth factor 1 (IIS) signaling and the direct sensing of amino acid availability by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Two systems are implicated in longevity and cancer proliferation. 80:10:10 80:10:10 diet, other attempts to modulate IIS are through intermittent fasting and the 5: 2 diet.
By studying the composition of food in the local population in Germany, Carl von Voit has established a standard of 118 grams of protein per day. Russell Henry Chittenden showed that it is better to maintain good health. Horace Fletcher was an early popularizer of low-protein diets, which he advocated along with chewing.
The daily requirement for humans is relatively small. The median human adult is for the sake of good quality protein is 0.65 grams per kilogram body weight per day and the 97.5 percentile is 0.83 grams per kilogram body weight per day. Children require more protein, depending on the growth phase. A 70 kg adult human who would be in the middle of the range would require approximately 45 grams of protein per day. This would represent less than 10% of kilocalories in a notional 2,200 kilocalorie ration. William Cumming Rose and his team studied the essential amino acids, helping to define minimum amounts needed for normal health. For adults, the minimum amount of each amino acid varies from 4 to 39 milligrams per kilogram of body weight per day. To be of good quality, protein only needs to come from a wide variety of foods; There is no need to mix animal and plant food together. Diet for a Small Planet. The concept of such specific proteins in the diet. Plant protein is often described as incomplete, suggesting that they lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Apart from rare examples, such as Taro, each of the essential amino acids. However, the relative abundance of the essential amino acids is more variable in plants than that found in animals, which is likely to be very similar in essential amino acid abundance, and this has a negative impact on the production of certain proteins.
Calorie restriction has been demonstrated to increase the life span and decrease the age-associated morbidity of many experimental animals. Increases in longevity or reductions in age-associated morbidity have been shown for model systems where protein or specific amino acids have been reduced. In particular, experiments in model systems in rats, mice, and drosophila fruit have shown increases in life-span with reduced protein intake comparable to that for calorie restriction. Restriction of the amino acid methionine, which is required to initiate protein synthesis, is sufficient to extend lifespan. Some of the most dramatic effects of calorie restriction are on metabolic health, promoting leanness, decreasing blood sugar, and increasing insulin sensitivity. Low-protein diets mimic Many of the effects of Calorie restriction may affect different metabolic mechanisms. Low protein diets rapidly reduce fat and restore normal insulin sensitivity to diet-induced obese mice. Specifically restricting the consumption of the three branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine is sufficient to promote leanness and improved regulation of blood glucose. The diets of humans living in some of the Blue Zones, areas of enhanced numbers and reduced age-associated morbidity, contain less than 10% of energy from protein. None of the diets in these regions are completely based on plants, but the bulk of the food eaten. Although it has been speculated that some of these populations are under calorie restriction,
In the past a low protein, high carbohydrate, moderate fat and low salt diet. However, more recent research suggests that 1.2-2 g of protein per kg. Levels of up to 2 g / kg body weight have been demonstrated to be incephalopathy. In addition, vitamin supplements especially vitamins B group should be taken. Sodium may be restricted to 500-1500 mg per day.
Low-protein diets to treat kidney disease in the diet, which was started by Walter Kempner at Duke University in 1939. This diet was a daily ration of 2.000 Calories consisting of moderate amounts of boiling rice, sucrose and dextrose, and a restricted range of fruit, supplemented with vitamins. Sodium and chloride where restricted to 150 mg and 200 mg respectively. It showed remarkable effects on the control of edema and hypertension. Although the rice is designed to treat kidney and vascular disease, the weight loss has been increased to 70 years. The Rice Diet program closed in 2013. Other low-protein starch-based diets like John A. McDougall’s program continues to be offered for kidney disease and hypertension.
The effect of protein on osteoporosis and bone fracture is complex. Calcium loss of bone is a protein that is dangerous for the body. IGF-1, which contributes to muscle growth, also contributes to bone growth, and IGF-1 is modulated by protein intake. However, at high protein levels, a net loss of calcium may occur through the urine in the neutralization of the acid form of the deamination and subsequent metabolism of methionine and cysteine. Broad prospective cohort studies have been shown to increase in risk of bone fracture when the quintile of highest protein is compared to the lowest protein consumption. In these studies, the trend is also for animal protein But the most important difference in animal protein intake. As protein consumption increases, calcium uptake from the gut is enhanced. Normal increases in calcium uptake occur with increased protein in the range 0.8 grams to 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram body weight per day. However, calcium does not compensate for calcium loss in the urine at a protein intake of 2 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Calcium is not one of the following substances, but it does not include sodium sulphate, such as ammonium sulphate, organic acid, phosphorus and chloride as well as ammonium, titratable acid, magnesium, potassium and sodium. . The study of Potential Renal Acid Load (PRAL) suggests that increased consumption of fruits, vegetables and cooked vegetables increases the ability of the body to buffer acid from protein metabolism, because they contribute to a relative growth potential in the body due to their relative concentrations. of proteins and ions. However, not all plant material is base forming, for example, nuts, grain and grain products add to the acid load.
In the United Kingdom, low-protein products and substitutes are prescribed through the health service.
Low protein, vegetarian diets have been hypothesized to be linked to longer life.