Long-term complications of standing are conditions that can occur after a prolonged period of standing or standing, including standing, walking or running. Most complications come from prolonged standing (more than 60% of a day’s work) which is repeated several times a week. There are many different jobs that require prolonged standing. These included: “retail staff, baristas, bartenders, assembly line workers, security personnel, engineers, catering staff, library assistants, hairdressers and laboratory technicians”. Cornell University has calculated that “standing up requires about 20% more energy than sitting”.
There are no exact measures of the prevalence of complications. However, European studies report that between one-third and one-half of workers spend at least four hours per shift (for an average eight-hour day) standing or walking. According to an estimate from the United Kingdom, more than 11 million people would remain without rest for a long time.
Good posture is often called “neutral spine”; Freeing is a bad posture or “non-neutral spine” Sagging is often described as poor posture, movement or rigidity of the spine, particularly the cervical and thoracic regions, compared to other parts of the body.
Varicose veins are veins that have widened and twisted, especially in the legs, ankles and feet of an affected individual. When standing, gravity pulls blood down from the lower body. The body’s mechanisms, such as vasoconstriction and vein valves, help to pump blood upwards. As the blood is pumped through the body, the valves in the veins prevent the blood from flowing backwards. After a long extended period, these valves may become weak and eventually fail. When this happens, the blood is no longer prevented from going back. Gravity will bring blood back to the legs, ankles and feet of an individual. This forces the veins to expand or “swell” to accommodate this extra blood. The valves of the veins work best with the muscle contractions that accompany them and force the blood to continue to raise the leg. Standing with constantly tense muscles weakens these muscles and therefore the strength of the contractions. Varicose veins have also been associated with chronic cardiac and circulatory disorders and hypertension, as well as complications related to pregnancy. Prolonged standing increases the risk of hospitalization of varicose veins. Among the working-age population, one in five hospitalizations caused by varicose veins is attributable to prolonged standing. Prolonged standing impedes blood flow and stasis in the veins of the lower limbs, which can cause varicose veins.
Standing for long periods of time can lead to certain cardiovascular disorders. In a study by Krause et al. (2000), the authors examined the relationship between work position and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in men. Standing for long periods can change the distribution of blood in the extremities. This in turn causes the pool of blood and reduces the volume of circulating blood plasma leading to hemodynamic changes that impact the body. The authors reported that long periods of rest at work were significantly associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. This study provides evidence that hemodynamic changes in standing can influence the progression of carotid atherosclerosis. The authors also found that men with carotid stenosis or ischemic heart disease were at greater risk of developing atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis can lead to coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral arterial disease and aneurysms.