Hunger strike

A hunger strike is a method of nonvoluntary resistance or pressure in which participants have an active role in political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change. Most hunger strikers will take liquids but not solid food. In cases where an entity (usually the state) has the ability to obtain custody of the hunger striker (such as a prisoner), the hunger strike is often terminated by the custodial entity through the use of force-feeding.

Fasting was used as a method of protesting injustice in pre-Christian Ireland, where it was known as Troscadh or Cealachan. It was detailed in the contemporary civic codes and it could be used. The fast was carried out on the doorstep of the home of the offender. Scholars speculate this is due to the importance of the culture placed on hospitality. Allowing a person to die at one’s doorstep, for a mistake of being accused, was considered a great dishonor. Others say that the practice is fast, there is no evidence of people fasting to death in pre-Christian Ireland. The fasts have been brought to justice. There are legends of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, using the hunger strike as well. In India, the practice of a hunger protest, where the protestor fasts at the door of an offending party (typically a debtor) in a public call for justice, was abolished by the government in 1861; this indicates the prevalence of the practice prior to that date, or at least a public awareness of it. This Indian practice is ancient, going back to around 400 to 750 BC. This can be known in the Ramayana, which was composed around that time. The actual mention appears in the Ayodhya kanda (the second book of the Ramayana), in Sarga (section) 103. Bharata has gone to ask the exiled Rama to come back and rule the kingdom. Bharata tries many arguments, none of which work, to which point he decides to do a hunger strike. He announced his intention to fast, Kusha grass (which Sumantra will not do, since he’s too busy looking at Rama’s face, so Bharata has to get it himself), and lies down on the grass in front of Rama. Rama, however, is quickly able to persuade him to abandon the attempt. Rama mentions it as a practice of the brahmanas.

In the first three days, the body is still using energy from glucose. After that, the liver starts processing a fat body, in a process called ketosis. After depleting fat, the body enters a “starvation mode”. At this point the body “mines” the muscles and vital organs for energy, and the loss of bone marrow becomes life-threatening. There are examples of hunger strikers dying after 46 to 73 days of strike.

In the early 20th century suffragettes frequently endured hunger strikes in British prisons. Marion Dunlop was first in 1909. She was released, as the authorities did not want to become a martyr. Other suffragettes in prison also undertook hunger strikes. The prison authorities subjected them to force-feeding, which the suffragettes categorized as a form of torture. Emmeline Pankhurst’s sister Mary Clarke, Lady Constance Bulwer-Lytton is believed to be a victim of serious suffering. In 1913 the Prisoner’s Temporary Discharge of Ill Health Act (nicknamed the “Cat and Mouse Act”) changed policy. Hunger strikes were tolerated when they became sick. When they had recovered, The suffragettes were taken back to prison to finish their sentences. Like their British counterparts, American suffragists also used this method of political protest. A few years prior to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, a group of American suffragettes led by Alice Engaged in a hunger strike and endured forced feedings while incarcerated at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia.

Hunger strikes have deep roots in Irish society and in the Irish psyche. This article is an attempt to make it easier for people to understand the situation and to behave well, and so shame him, was a common feature of early Irish society and this was fully incorporated into the Brehon legal system. The tradition is most likely part of the still older Indo-European tradition of which the Irish were part. The tactic was used by the country during the 1916-23 revolutionary period. Early life of hunger strikes was countered with force-feeding, culminating in 1917 in the death of Thomas Ashe in Mountjoy Prison. During the Anglo-Irish War, in October 1920, the Lord Mayor of Cork, Terence MacSwiney, died on hunger strike in Brixton prison. Two other Cork IRA men, Joe Murphy and Michael Fitzgerald, died in this protest. John and Peter Crowley, Thomas Donovan, Michael Burke, Michael O’Reilly, Christopher Upton, John Power, Joseph Kenny, and Seán Hennessy, demanding reinstatement of political status and release from prison, go to hunger strike at Cork County Gaol. Arthur Griffith called off the strikes after the deaths of MacSwiney, Murphy and Fitzgerald. During the 1920s, the vessel was used by the British government as part of their internment strategy post Bloody Sunday. Cloistered below decks in cages which held internal 50, the prisoners were forced to use broken toilets which often overflowed into their communal area. Deprived of tables, the already weakened men off the floor, frequently succumbing to disease and illness as a result. There were several hunger strikes, including a major strike involving upwards of 150 men in the winter of 1923. By February 1923, under the 1922 Special Powers Act the British were detaining 263 men on Argenta, which was moored in Belfast Lough. Larne workhouse, Belfast Prison and Derry Gaol. Together, both the ship and the workhouse alone held 542 men without trial at the highest internment population level during June 1923. After the end of the Irish Civil War in October 1923, up to 8,000 IRA prisoners went on strike to protest their continued detention by the Irish Free State (a total of over 12,000 republicans had been interned by May 1923). Two men, Denny Barry and Andrew O’Sullivan, died on the strike. The strike, however, was called out before any more deaths occurred. The Free State further released the women republican prisoners. Most of the Republicans were not released until the following year. Under Valera’s first Fianna Fianna Fáil government in 1932, military pensions were awarded to dependents of republicans who died in 1920s hunger strikes on the same basis as those who were killed in action. During the state of emergency of World War II another of the Valera government interned many IRA members, Sean McCaughey, Tony D’Arcy and Sean (Jack) McNeela. Hundreds of others have gone on hunger strikes during the years of Valera with no sympathy from the Government. The tactic was revived by the Provisional IRA in the early 1970s, Sean MacStiofain successfully used hunger strikes in the Republic of Ireland. Michael Gaughan died after being force-fed into a British prison in 1974. Frank Stagg, an IRA member being held in a British jail, died after a 62-day hunger strike in 1976 which he began as a campaign to be repatriated to Ireland.

In 1980, seven Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) prisoners in the Maze Prison launched a hunger strike as a protest against the revocation by the UK government of a prisoner-of-war-like Special Category Status for paramilitary prisoners in Northern Ireland. The strike, led by Brendan Hughes, was called off before any deaths, when the government appeared to offer to concede their demands; however, the Government then reneged on the details of the agreement. The prisoners then called another hunger strike the following year. This time, one of many prisoners striking at the same time, the hunger strikers started fasting one after the other in order to maximize publicity over the fate of each one. Bobby Sands was the first of ten paramilitary prisoners to die during a hunger strike in 1981. There was widespread sympathy for the hunger strikers of the Irish republicans and the broader nationalist community on both sides of the Irish border. Bobby Sands was elected as an MP to the UK’s Houses of Parliament and two other hunger strikers, Paddy Agnew and Kieran Doherty, were elected to the UK in the Republic of Ireland by electors who wished to register their opposition to the UK Government’s then policy. The ten men survived without food for 46 to 73 days, taking only water and salt, before succumbing. After the deaths of the men and women, the Government granted partial concessions to the prisoners, and the strike was called off. The hunger strikes gave a huge propaganda boost to a previously severely demoralized Provisional IRA.

Mahatma Gandhi was imprisoned in 1922, 1930, 1933, and 1942. Because of Gandhi’s stature around the world, British authorities were loath to allow him to die in their custody. It is likely that Britain’s reputation would have suffered as a result of such an event. Gandhi in several famous hunger strikes to protest British rule of India. Fasting was a non-violent way of communicating the message and sometimes dramatically achieving the reason for the protest. This was keeping with the rules of Satyagraha. In addition to Gandhi, various others used the hunger strike option during the Indian Independence Movement. Such figures include Jatin Das (who fasted to death) and Bhagat Singh. It was only on the day of their fast, on October 5, 1929 that Bhagat Singh and Dutt gave up their strike (surpassing the 97-day world record for hunger strikes which was set by Irish revolutionary). During this hunger strike that lasted 116 days and ended with the British succumbing to his wishes, he gained much popularity among the Indians. The Punjab region. After Indian Independence, freedom fighter Potti Sreeramulu used to drive a separate state for Telugu-speaking people. Morarji Desai went on fast in the Navy in the 1970s Indulal Yagnik aka Indu Chacha went on a long fast during Maha Gujarat and thereafter in the seventies. he gained much popularity among the Indians. The Punjab region. After Indian Independence, freedom fighter Potti Sreeramulu used to drive a separate state for Telugu-speaking people. Morarji Desai went on fast in the Navy in the 1970s Indulal Yagnik aka Indu Chacha went on a long fast during Maha Gujarat and thereafter in the seventies. he gained much popularity among the Indians. The Punjab region. After Indian Independence, freedom fighter Potti Sreeramulu used to drive a separate state for Telugu-speaking people. Morarji Desai went on fast in the Navy in the 1970s Indulal Yagnik aka Indu Chacha went on a long fast during Maha Gujarat and thereafter in the seventies.

Potti Sriramulu was an Indian revolutionary who died after undertaking a hunger strike in 1952 after Indian independence in an attempt to achieve the formation of a separate state, to be known as Andhra State. His sacrifice became instrumental in the linguistic re-organization of states. He is revered as Amarajeevi (Immortal being) in Coastal Andra for his sacrifice. As a devout follower of Mahatma Gandhi, he worked for much of his life to uphold the principles of non-violence and patriotism. those traditionally called “untouchables” in Indian society.

On April 3, 1972, Pedro Luis Boitel, an imprisoned poet and dissident, declared himself on hunger strike. After the day of death on May 25, 1972. His last days were related by his close friend, poet Armando Valladares. He was buried in an unmarked grave in the Colon Cemetery in Havana. Guillermo Fariñas did a seven-month hunger strike to protest against the extensive Internet censorship in Cuba. He ended up in Autumn 2006, with severe health problems yet still conscious. Reporters Without Borders awarded their cyber-freedom prize to Guillermo Fariñas in 2006. Jorge Luis Garcia Perez (known as Antunes) has done hunger strikes. In 2009, following the end of his 17-year imprisonment, Antúnez, his wife Iris, and Diosiris Santana Perez started a hunger strike to support other political prisoners. Leaders from Uruguay, Costa Rica and Argentina declared their support for Antúnez. On February 23, 2010, Orlando Zapata Tamayo, a dissident arrested in 2003, died in a hospital while suffering a hunger strike in Cuba’s “Kilo 8” prison. He had declared the hunger strike in protest of the poor conditions of the prison in which he was held. He was one of 55 prisoners of conscience in Cuba to be adopted by Amnesty International. He was involved with an array of offenses, including “resistance”, “contempt”, and “disrespect”. Orlando Zapata Tamayo, a dissident arrested in 2003, died in a hospital while in pursuit of a death strike in Cuba’s “Kilo 8” prison. He had declared the hunger strike in protest of the poor conditions of the prison in which he was held. He was one of 55 prisoners of conscience in Cuba to be adopted by Amnesty International. He was involved with an array of offenses, including “resistance”, “contempt”, and “disrespect”. Orlando Zapata Tamayo, a dissident arrested in 2003, died in a hospital while in pursuit of a death strike in Cuba’s “Kilo 8” prison. He had declared the hunger strike in protest of the poor conditions of the prison in which he was held. He was one of 55 prisoners of conscience in Cuba to be adopted by Amnesty International. He was involved with an array of offenses, including “resistance”, “contempt”, and “disrespect”. He had declared the hunger strike in protest of the poor conditions of the prison in which he was held. He was one of 55 prisoners of conscience in Cuba to be adopted by Amnesty International. He was involved with an array of offenses, including “resistance”, “contempt”, and “disrespect”. He had declared the hunger strike in protest of the poor conditions of the prison in which he was held. He was one of 55 prisoners of conscience in Cuba to be adopted by Amnesty International. He was involved with an array of offenses, including “resistance”, “contempt”, and “disrespect”.

Article 6 of the 1975 World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo states that doctors are not allowed to force hunger strikers. They are presumed to be independent, and they are recommended to have a second opinion as to the ability of the prisoner to understand the implications of their decision and be capable of informed consent. : Where a prisoner refuses to be nursed and is considered by the physician as capable of forming an unimpeded and rational judgment concerning the consequences of such a voluntary refusal of nourishment, he or she shall not be fed artificially. The decision as to the capacity of the prisoner to form such a judgment should be confirmed by at least one other independent physician. The consequences of the refusal of nourishment to be explained by the physician to the prisoner. The World Medical Association (WMA) recently revised its Declaration of Malta on Hunger Strikers. Amongst the world, it is unambiguously states that it is feeding a form of inhuman and degrading treatment in its Article 21. The American Medical Association (AMA) is a member of the WMA, but the AMA’s members are not bound by the WMA’s decisions, as nor organization has formal legal powers. The AMA has formally endorsed the WMA Declaration of Tokyo and has written several letters to the US Government and made public statements in opposition to US physician involvement in force feeding of strangers in contravention of medical ethics. The United States Code of Federal Regulations on hunger strikes by prisoners states, “

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