Food and drink prohibitions

Some people abstain from various foods and beverages in conformity with various religious, cultural, legal or other societal prohibitions. Many of these prohibitions constitute taboos. Many mammals, rodents, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, molluscs, crustaceans and insects, which may be related to a plant-based food. Some prohibitions are specific to a particular part of the excretion of an animal, while others forgo the consumption of plants or fungi. Food prohibitions can be defined as rules, or by which foods, or combinations of foods, may be prepared or prepared. The origins of these prohibitions are varied. In some cases, they are thought to be a result of health considerations or other practical reasons; in others, they report to human symbolic systems. Some foods may be prohibited during certain religious periods (eg, Slow), at certain stages of life (eg, pregnancy), or to certain classes of people (eg, priests), even though the food is otherwise permitted. We have a comparative basis of food that can not be more easily made. Whether scientifically correct or not, often food is meant to protect the individual, but there are many other reasons for their existence. An ecological or medical background is apparent in many, some of which are seen as religious or spiritual in origin. Food taboos can help using a resource more efficiently, but when applied to a section of the community, a food taboo can also lead to the monopolization of a food item by those exempted. A food taboo is a part of their ways, aids in the cohesion of the group, which assists the group to stand out and maintain its identity in the face of others and thus creates a feeling of “belonging”.

Various religions forbid the consumption of certain types of food. For example, Judaism prescribes a strict set of rules, called Kashrut, which can not be eaten, and substantially forbidding the mixing of meat with dairy products. Islam has similar laws, forbidding and halal (permitted). Jains often follow religious guidelines to observe vegetarianism. Most Hindus do not eat beef, and some Hindus apply the concept of ahimsa (non-violence) to their diet and consider vegetarianism as ideal, and practice forms of vegetarianism. In some cases, the process of preparation rather than the food itself comes under scrutiny. For instance, in early medieval Christianity, some uncooked foods were of dubious status: a penitential and St. Boniface wrote to Pope Zachary (in a letter preserved in the Boniface correspondence, No. 87) asking him how long bacon would have been safe for consumption. The Kapu system was used in Hawaii until 1819. Aside from formal rules, there are cultural taboos against the consumption of some animals. Within a given society, the definition of a foodstuff. Novel meats, ie, animal-derived food products, which are generally used in the food industry, and which can be expressed as a cultural taboo. For example, meat is eaten, in certain circumstances, in Korea, Vietnam, and China, it is considered to be a food in Western countries. Likewise, horse meat is rarely eaten in the English-speaking world, but it is part of the national kitchen of countries as spread over Kazakhstan, Japan, Italy, and France. Sometimes food prohibitions enter national or local law, slaughterhouses in most of India, and horse slaughter in the United States. Even after reversion to Chinese rule, Hong Kong has not lifted its ban on supplying meat from dogs and cats, imposed during British colonial rule. Environmentalism, ethical consumerism and other activist movements are giving rise to new prohibitions and eating guidelines. A fairly recent addition to the cultural food prohibition is the meat and eggs of endangered species or animals that are otherwise protected by law or international treaty. Examples of such protected species include some species of whales, sea turtles, and migratory birds. Similarly, sustainable seafood advisory lists and certification of the consumption of certain seafoods due to unsustainable fishing. Organic certification prohibits certain synthetic chemical inputs during food production, or genetically modified organisms, irradiation, and the use of sewing sludge. The Fair Trade movement and certification of the consumption of food and other goods produced in exploitative working conditions. Other social movements generating taboos include Local Food and the 100-Mile Diet, both of which encourage abstinence from non-locally produced food, and veganism, in which adherents endeavor not to use or consume animal products of any kind. Organic certification prohibits certain synthetic chemical inputs during food production, or genetically modified organisms, irradiation, and the use of sewing sludge. The Fair Trade movement and certification of the consumption of food and other goods produced in exploitative working conditions. Other social movements generating taboos include Local Food and the 100-Mile Diet, both of which encourage abstinence from non-locally produced food, and veganism, in which adherents endeavor not to use or consume animal products of any kind. Organic certification prohibits certain synthetic chemical inputs during food production, or genetically modified organisms, irradiation, and the use of sewing sludge. The Fair Trade movement and certification of the consumption of food and other goods produced in exploitative working conditions. Other social movements generating taboos include Local Food and the 100-Mile Diet, both of which encourage abstinence from non-locally produced food, and veganism, in which adherents endeavor not to use or consume animal products of any kind.

Judaism strictly forbids the consumption of amphibians such as frogs. The restriction is described in Leviticus 11: 29-30 and 42-43. Derivative chemical products from amphibians, plus be avoided. In other cultures, these foods may be marketed in various circumstances and may be commercially available in certain circumstances. However, environmental concerns over the endangerment of frogs, even possibly pushing them into extinction, in order to limit their use in food. The French Ministry of Agriculture, 1976, and efforts have continued since 1976. Mass commercial harvesting of the animals was banned in 1980,

In Judaism, the Deuteronomic Code and Priestly Code explicitly prohibits the bat. Likewise, Islamic Sharia forbids their consumption. (However, in the predominantly Muslim nation of Indonesia, there is a lot of preaching, especially within the Batak and Minahasa minority communities, both of which are largely non-Muslim.)

Bears are not considered kosher animals in Judaism. Observing so Jews abstain from eating bear meat. All predatory terrestrial animals are forbidden in Islam.

The Torah (Leviticus 11:13) explicitly states that the eagle, vulture, and osprey are not to be eaten. A bird is commonly raised in some areas, the ostrich, is explicitly banned as food in some interpretations of Leviticus 11:16. Rabbis have frequently inferred that the singling out of birds of prey thus, eating chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys is allowed. In contrast Islamic dietary rules are allowed to consume, while birds of prey are forbidden. Scavengers and carrion-eaters such as vultures and crows are avoided in many cultures because they are perceived as disease and unclean, and associated with death. An exception is the rook which was a recognised country dish, and which was served in a Scottish restaurant in London. In Western cultures today, most people look at songbirds as backyard wildlife rather than as food. A balut is a developing embryo bird (usually a duck or chicken) that is boiled and eaten from the shell. Part of the Quran includes understanding and respecting the law that any animal products should not be eaten if the animal has not been slaughtered properly, making the animal or animal-product “maytah”. Because it is an egg-shaped embryo, Muslims believes this makes it “haram”, or “forbidden”. most people look at songbirds as backyard wildlife rather than as food. A balut is a developing embryo bird (usually a duck or chicken) that is boiled and eaten from the shell. Part of the Quran includes understanding and respecting the law that any animal products should not be eaten if the animal has not been slaughtered properly, making the animal or animal-product “maytah”. Because it is an egg-shaped embryo, Muslims believes this makes it “haram”, or “forbidden”. most people look at songbirds as backyard wildlife rather than as food. A balut is a developing embryo bird (usually a duck or chicken) that is boiled and eaten from the shell. Part of the Quran includes understanding and respecting the law that any animal products should not be eaten if the animal has not been slaughtered properly, making the animal or animal-product “maytah”. Because it is an egg-shaped embryo, Muslims believes this makes it “haram”, or “forbidden”. making the animal or animal-product “maytah”. Because it is an egg-shaped embryo, Muslims believes this makes it “haram”, or “forbidden”. making the animal or animal-product “maytah”. Because it is an egg-shaped embryo, Muslims believes this makes it “haram”, or “forbidden”.

The eating of camels is strictly forbidden by the Torah in and. The torah considers the camel unclean because even though it chews the cud, or regurgitates, the way cattle, sheep, goats, deer, antelope, and giraffes (all of which are kosher) do, it does not meet the cloven hoof criterion. Like these animals, camels (and llamas) are ruminants with a multi-chambered stomach. Camels are even-toed ungulates, with feet split in two. However, unlike them, the camels’ feet do not like hooves but rather soft pads. In Islam, the eating of camel is allowed, and is indeed traditional in the Islamic heartland in Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula more generally.

There is a strong taboo against eating cats in many Western parts of the world, most of the Americas and Europe. Cat meat is forbidden by Jewish and Islamic law forbidden the carnivore. Cat meat is eaten as part of an uncommon cuisines of China, Vietnam and Switzerland. These are the methods used in Western countries, or as working animals, kept in mind, and not as a food animal, and the result of a large proportion of the population in those countries. Cat meat was eaten, for example, during the famine in the Siege of Leningrad. In 1996, a place that was supposedly discovered by the Argentine in a shanty town in Rosario, but in fact the meal had been set up by the media of Buenos Aires. In 2008, it was reported that it was reported in Guangdong, China, with many countries being shipped from China. Protesters in other parts of China to urge the Guangdong provincial government to crack down on cat traders and restaurants that serve meat, it is illegal to eat cats. The term “roof-rabbit” (roof-rabbit, German Dachhase) applies to the meat of a person who has been born in another country. Subtracting the skin, hare, and cat carcasses appear similar. The only way to distinguish themselves from the process is to have a process called suprahamatus. Dar gato por liebre (”

Cattle hold a traditional place as objects of reverence in countries such as India. Many Hindus, particularly Brahmins, are vegetarian and strictly abstaining from eating meat. Many of those who eat meat abstain from the consumption of beef, especially in the north and west India, as the cow holds a sacred place in Hinduism. For example, tradition states that the goddess Kamdhenu manifests herself as a wish-granting divine cow, with such stories repeated over generations. Beef is widely eaten in south India, especially Kerala, and throughout northeast India. In contrast to cow slaughter, yogurt, and particularly ghee (a form of butter) is highly common in India. Cow-derived products play a significant role in Hinduism with milk being highly revered, often being used in holy ceremonies. Bullocks were the primary source of agricultural power and transportation in the early days of the world. for example, if a famine-stricken village kills and eats its bullocks, they will not be available to pull the plow and the cart when next planting season comes. However, this hypothesis has found little data to support it. Areas suffering from starvation may be necessary to survive the next season. Indian states except Kerala, West Bengal and the seven north eastern states. A person involved in one’s cow slaughter or its illegal transportation could be jailed in many states. Slaughter of cows is an extremely provocative issue for many Hindus. Many Zoroastrians do not eat beef, because of the cow that saved Zoroaster’s life from murderers when Zoroaster was a baby. Actual Pahlavi states that Zoroastrians should be fully vegetarian. Some ethnic Chinese can also be used to eat cow meat, because many of them feel that it is wrong to eat an animal that was so useful in agriculture. Some Chinese Buddhists do not consider the taboo. A similar taboo can be seen among Sinhalese Buddhists, who consider it to be ungrateful to kill the animal. While both beef and dairy products are permitted in the United States, the mixing of dairy products is completely forbidden.

Chewing gum is a soft, cohesive substance intended for chewing but not swallowing. Humans have used chewing gum for at least 3,000 years. In Singapore importing chewing gum is a criminal offense. The exception is made for dental or nicotine gum, which is available from dentists and pharmacies.

Almost all types of non-swimming seafood, such as shellfish, lobster, shrimp or crayfish, are forbidden by Judaism because such animals live in water but do not have both purposes. As a general rule, all seafood is permissible in the 3 ” madh’hab ” of Sunni Islam except Hanafi school of thought. The Ja’fari School of Islamic Jurisprudence, which is followed by most Shia Muslims, prohibits non-swimming (lacking scales) seafood (with the exception of shrimp).

Milk, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products are not consumed by animals. The consumption of dairy products together with meat is also prohibited in the Jewish faith, as prescribed in Deuteronomy 14:21: “You shall not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.”

Generally speaking, it is considered to be taboo, but it has been broken down into a taboo. Meat in German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German German. In the early 20th century, consumption of dog meat in Germany was common. Suspicions about the origin of Frankfurter meat sold by German immigrants in the United States to the corner of the term ‘hot dog’. In 1937, a meat inspection law was introduced for pigs, dogs, boars, foxes, badgers, and other carnivores. Dog meat has been banned in Germany since 1986. In 2009 scandal erupted when a farm near Częstochowa was discovered rearing dogs to be rendered down to smalec – bacon. According to the ancient Hindu scriptures (see Manusmṛti and medicinal texts like Sushruta Samhita), ” dog’s meat ” is considered to be the most unclean (and rather poisonous) food possible. Dog’s meat is also regarded as unclean under Jewish and Islamic dietary laws; therefore, both of these religious traditions also discourage its consumption. In Irish Mythology, legend recounts how Cú Chulainn, the great hero of Ulster, was presented with a Morton’s fork, forcing him to break his geis (taboo) about eating dog meat (his name means Culann’s Hound) or break his taboo about declining hospitality; Cú Chulainn thing to eat the meat, leading ultimately to his death. In Mexico during the pre-Columbian era a hairless dog named xoloitzcuintle was commonly eaten. After colonization, this custom stopped. Lewis & Clark more the men in his expedition were recorded in the United States of America. In East Asia, most countries except Vietnam, North and South Korea. Manchus has a prohibition against eating of meat, which is sometimes consumed by the Manchus’ neighboring Northeastern Asian peoples. The Manchus also avoids the wearing of dog’s fur. In addition to Manchus, Chinese Mongol, Miao, Muslims, Tibetan, Yao and Yi have a taboo against dog meat. In Indonesia, due to its majority Islamic population, with the exception of Christian Batak and Minahasan ethnic groups that traditionally consumed dog meat.

Jains abstain from eating eggs. Vegans also abstain from eggs, due to their animal origin. Many Hindu vegetarians also have fun, but this is not universal among the faithful. An egg that naturally contains a spot of blood may not be eaten under Jewish and Islamic tradition, although they are commonly consumed otherwise.

Buddhist monks are forbidden to eat elephant meat. Elephant meat is also not considered Kosher by Jewish dietary laws because they do not have cloven hooves and they are not ruminants.

Among the Somali people, most clans have a taboo against the consumption of fish, and do not intermarry with the few occupational clans that do eat it. There are many people who live in Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, and Northern Tanzania. Cushitic fish-taboo, as Cushitic speakers are believed to be responsible for the introduction of fish avoidance to East Africa, but not all Cushitic groups avoid fish. The zone of the fish is roughly coincidental with the general rule of speech, speakers of Nilo-Saharan and Semitic languages, and indeed many watermen. The few Bantu and Nilotic groups in East Africa that do practice fish avoidance also reside in areas where Cushites appear to have lived in earlier times. Within East Africa, the fish taboo is found no further than Tanzania. This is attributed to the local presence of the tsetse fly and in areas beyond, which is likely to be a barrier to further southern migration by wandering pastoralists, the main fish-avoiders. Zambia and Mozambique’s Bantus were thus spared subjugation by pastoral groups, and they There is also another center of fish avoidance in Southern Africa, among mainly Bantu speakers. It is not clear whether this disinclination has been independently or introduced. It is certain, however, that no avoidance of fish occurs between southern Africa s earliest inhabitants, the Khoisan. Nevertheless, since the Bantu of southern Africa, it is believed that, at an unknown date, the taboo of the consumption of fish was similarly introduced from East Africa by cattle-herding peoples. who somehow managed to get their livestock past the present tsetse fly endemic regions. Certain species of fish are also forbidden in such waters (Anguillidae) and all species of catfish. Although they live in water, they appear to have no scales (see under Leviticus 11: 10-13). Sunni Muslim laws are more flexible in this. Catfish and shark are commonly known as halal fish. Permissible in the oven Sunni ” madh ‘ ” The Ja’fari Jurisprudence followed by most Shia Muslims forbids all species of fish, it also forbids all shell fish species except prawns. Many tribes of the Southwestern United States, including the Navajo, Apache, and Zuñi, have a taboo against fish and other water-related animals, including waterfowl. Norse settlers in Greenland (10th-15th centuries AD) developed as a taboo against fish consumption, as recounted in Jared Diamond’s. This is unusual, as it has been noted that, in the past, it has not been estimated that it is less than 0.1% of animals recovered at Greenland Norse archeological sites, compared to between 50 and 95% at most contemporary Iceland, northern Norway, and Shetland sites. ” fari Jurisprudence followed by most Shia Muslims, except for all species of fish. Many tribes of the Southwestern United States, including the Navajo, Apache, and Zuñi, have a taboo against fish and other water-related animals, including waterfowl. Norse settlers in Greenland (10th-15th centuries AD) developed as a taboo against fish consumption, as recounted in Jared Diamond’s. This is unusual, as it has been noted that, in the past, it has not been estimated that it is less than 0.1% of animals recovered at Greenland Norse archeological sites, compared to between 50 and 95% at most contemporary Iceland, northern Norway, and Shetland sites. ” fari Jurisprudence followed by most Shia Muslims, except for all species of fish. Many tribes of the Southwestern United States, including the Navajo, Apache, and Zuñi, have a taboo against fish and other water-related animals, including waterfowl. Norse settlers in Greenland (10th-15th centuries AD) developed as a taboo against fish consumption, as recounted in Jared Diamond’s. This is unusual, as it has been noted that, in the past, it has not been estimated that it is less than 0.1% of animals recovered at Greenland Norse archeological sites, compared to between 50 and 95% at most contemporary Iceland, northern Norway, and Shetland sites. ” it also forbids all shell fish species except prawns. Many tribes of the Southwestern United States, including the Navajo, Apache, and Zuñi, have a taboo against fish and other water-related animals, including waterfowl. Norse settlers in Greenland (10th-15th centuries AD) developed as a taboo against fish consumption, as recounted in Jared Diamond’s. This is unusual, as it has been noted that, in the past, it has not been estimated that it is less than 0.1% of animals recovered at Greenland Norse archeological sites, compared to between 50 and 95% at most contemporary Iceland, northern Norway, and Shetland sites. ” it also forbids all shell fish species except prawns. Many tribes of the Southwestern United States, including the Navajo, Apache, and Zuñi, have a taboo against fish and other water-related animals, including waterfowl. Norse settlers in Greenland (10th-15th centuries AD) developed as a taboo against fish consumption, as recounted in Jared Diamond’s. This is unusual, as it has been noted that, in the past, it has not been estimated that it is less than 0.1% of animals recovered at Greenland Norse archeological sites, compared to between 50 and 95% at most contemporary Iceland, northern Norway, and Shetland sites. ” including waterfowl. Norse settlers in Greenland (10th-15th centuries AD) developed as a taboo against fish consumption, as recounted in Jared Diamond’s. This is unusual, as it has been noted that, in the past, it has not been estimated that it is less than 0.1% of animals recovered at Greenland Norse archeological sites, compared to between 50 and 95% at most contemporary Iceland, northern Norway, and Shetland sites. ” including waterfowl. Norse settlers in Greenland (10th-15th centuries AD) developed as a taboo against fish consumption, as recounted in Jared Diamond’s. This is unusual, as it has been noted that, in the past, it has not been estimated that it is less than 0.1% of animals recovered at Greenland Norse archeological sites, compared to between 50 and 95% at most contemporary Iceland, northern Norway, and Shetland sites. ”

Many countries observe this as a delicacy but it is a taboo in most countries. Considered as bodies, fetuses of sheep and goats in India, China and Vietnam. Known as “kutti pi” (fetus bag), this is prepared to become a soup or a spicy curry. With only the intestines removed, the fetus is slow cooked for a few minutes.

Vedic Brahmins, Gaudiya Vaishnavas, tantriks and some Buddhist priests abstain from fungi and all vegetables of the onion family (Alliaceae). They believe that these excite damaging passions. In North Indian traditions, plants of the family, and effectively all overwintering plants are considered taboo. This is possibly due to the influence of Jain traditions. In Jain traditions, bad karma is generated with all forms of killing, including that of plants. Hierarchy of living creatures is based on the number of senses they possess. In this hierarchy, overwintering plants such as these are considered higher than other food crops such as wheat and rice. The ability to view the change of the seasons is also believed to be additional ‘sense’ absent in lower plants. The amount of bad karma has been created by the creature. Therefore, it is best to avoid eating onions. Fungi are eschewed as they grow at night. In Iceland, rural parts of Sweden and Western Finland, although not taboo, were widely distributed before the Second World War. They were viewed as a food for food and were associated with the stigma of being a wartime and poverty food. This is a marked contrast to the ancient Romans, who considered the mushroom a delicacy of the highest order and held it in high regard as food fit for emperors. mushrooms were not widely eaten before the Second World War. They were viewed as a food for food and were associated with the stigma of being a wartime and poverty food. This is a marked contrast to the ancient Romans, who considered the mushroom a delicacy of the highest order and held it in high regard as food fit for emperors. mushrooms were not widely eaten before the Second World War. They were viewed as a food for food and were associated with the stigma of being a wartime and poverty food. This is a marked contrast to the ancient Romans, who considered the mushroom a delicacy of the highest order and held it in high regard as food fit for emperors.

Guinea pigs, or cuy, are commonly eaten in Peru, in the southwestern cities of Colombia, and among some populations in the Highlands of Ecuador, mostly in the Andes highlands. Cuyes can be found on the menu of restaurants in Lima and other cities in Peru, as well as in Pasto, Colombia. Guinea pig meat is exported to the United States and European nations. In 2004, the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation took legal action to stop vendors serving an Ecuadorian festival in Flushing Meadows Park. New York State allows for the consumption of guinea pigs, but New York City prohibits it. Accusations of cultural persecution have since been leveled. The guinea pig’s close cousins, capybara and paca, are consumed as food in South America. The Catholic Church

Horse meat is part of the cuisine of the countries of the world as a whole, with an average of 900 grams consumed per person annually; Belgium, France, Spain and Switzerland, where horse meat is common in supermarkets; Germany with only 50 grams consumed per person on average annually. It is still specialized in butcher shops in Austria, and also eaten in Polynesia, Serbia, Slovenia, Kazakhstan, but is taboo in some religions and many countries. It is forbidden by Jewish law, because the horse is not a ruminant, nor does it have cloven hooves. By the way, the horses are a taboo for the Castro culture in Northwestern Portugal, and it is still a counter-cultural practice in the region. Horse meat is prohibited by some sects of Christianity. In 732, Pope Gregory III instructed St. Boniface to suppress the pagan practice of eating horses, calling it a “filthy and abominable custom”. The Christianisation of Iceland in 1000 AD was achieved only when the Church promised that Icelanders could continue to eat horsemeat; The church has been consolidated, the allowance was discontinued. Horsemeat is still popular in Iceland and is sold and consumed in the same way as beef, lamb and pork. In Islam, opinions vary as to the permissibility of horse meat. Some quotes have been forbidding it to Muslims, but others doubt their validity and authority. Wild horses are generally regarded as halal while domesticated horses and asses are viewed as forbidden. Various Muslim cultures have differed in the attitude in eating the meat. Historically, Turks and Persians have eaten the meat, while in North Africa this is rare. Horse meat is modestly counter-cultural in the English-speaking world. In Canada, horse meat is legal. Most Canadian horse meat is exported to Continental Europe or Japan. The consumer protection show “Kassensturz” of Swiss television SRF discovered the brutal treatment and brutal animal husbandry in Canadian horse meat farms, therefore the import of such farms has been boycotted. In the United States, the sale and consumption of meat is illegal in California and Illinois. However, it was sold in the US during World War II, since it was expensive, rationed and destined for the troops. The last horse meat slaughterhouse in USA was closed in 2007. Nevertheless, discarded leisure, sport and work horses are collected and sold at auctions. They are shipped across the country by transporters to the borders of Canada in the south of the country. The handling of the animals is brutal. Some animals do not survive the long hours of transportation. The issue of horse consumption in the UK and Ireland was raised in 2013 with scandal. The horse is also in the Balkans, although it is considered to be a noble animal, or because it is associated with war-time famine, it has a small market niche in Serbia. Some animals do not survive the long hours of transportation. The issue of horse consumption in the UK and Ireland was raised in 2013 with scandal. The horse is also in the Balkans, although it is considered to be a noble animal, or because it is associated with war-time famine, it has a small market niche in Serbia. Some animals do not survive the long hours of transportation. The issue of horse consumption in the UK and Ireland was raised in 2013 with scandal. The horse is also in the Balkans, although it is considered to be a noble animal, or because it is associated with war-time famine, it has a small market niche in Serbia.

Of all the taboo meat, human flesh ranks the most heavily proscribed. In recent times, humans have consumed the flesh of humans in rituals and out of insanity, hatred, or overriding hunger – never a common part of their diet, but it is thought that The consumption of human flesh is forbidden by Hinduism and Judaism and Islam. Catholics, Lutherans, and Orthodox Christians do not view themselves as engaging in communion, as they are believed to be the bread and blood of the same substance as the body and blood of Christ before being consumed. in all ways to the senses. Catholics refer to this as transubstantiation; the Orthodox believe the change occurs, believing it to be a sacred mystery. Most Protestants and other Christian denominations do not believe that transubstantiation (or any actual physical presence of Jesus in any form) occurs at all. Cannibalism used to be required in certain tribes; The people of Papua New Guinea were particularly well-studied in their eating of the dead, because they believed it to be a disease. In the book Everyday life in China, on the eve of the Mongol invasion, 1250-1276 Jacques Gernet refers to restaurants that specialized in human flesh. From the context, it does not appear that this was a freak event associated with famine. Cannibalism used to be required in certain tribes; The people of Papua New Guinea were particularly well-studied in their eating of the dead, because they believed it to be a disease. In the book Everyday life in China, on the eve of the Mongol invasion, 1250-1276 Jacques Gernet refers to restaurants that specialized in human flesh. From the context, it does not appear that this was a freak event associated with famine. Cannibalism used to be required in certain tribes; The people of Papua New Guinea were particularly well-studied in their eating of the dead, because they believed it to be a disease. In the book Everyday life in China, on the eve of the Mongol invasion, 1250-1276 Jacques Gernet refers to restaurants that specialized in human flesh. From the context, it does not appear that this was a freak event associated with famine.

In Judaism and within other groups following the Hebrew Torah some locusts are allowed as food (Leviticus 11:22 and Matthew 3: 4). Except for certain locusts and related species, Kosher foods; dietary laws also require that people check food carefully for insects. In Islam locusts are considered lawful food along with fish that do not require ritual slaughtering. Honey is concentrated nectar and honeydew which has been regurgitated by bees. It is considered that even though they are not, an apparent exception to the normal rule that unclean animal products are also unclean. This topic is covered in the Talmud and is explained on the grounds that the bee does not originally make the honey, the flower does, while the bees store and dehydrate the liquid into honey. This is different from royal jelly, which is produced by non-Kosher. Some vegans also avoid honey as they would any other animal product.

Kangaroo meat is banned in the US state of California. The ban was first imposed in 1971; A moratorium was put in place in 2007, allowing the importation of the meat, but was re-enacted in 2015.

Lettuce is taboo to the Yazidis religion.

Islamic, Judahic law (including Noahide Law), and some laws of some Christians (see Genesis 9: 4, as interpreted in the Talmud, Sanhedrin 59a). Judaism restricts this prohibition to land animals and birds; fish do not require kosher slaughter, but must first be killed before being eaten. Ofster of .ster .ster .ster .ster .ster .ster .ster .ster .ster .ster .ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster (ster. Sashimi using live animals has been banned in some countries. Ikizukuri practices are prohibited under the law forbidding unnecessary bread to animals. Another example occurs in Shanghai, China, and surrounding areas, where live shrimp is a common dish served both in homes and restaurants. The shrimp are usually served in a bowl of alcohol, which makes the shrimp sluggish and complacent. Related may be the revulsion in western cultures around the world.

Monkey brains is a dish of at least partially, the brain of some species of monkey or ape. In Western popular culture, its consumption is often portrayed and debated, often in the context of portraying exotic cultures as exceptionally cruel, callous, and / or strange. Monkeys are revered in India, largely because of the monkey god Hanuman. Most vegetarian Hindus do not eat any kind of meat, including monkeys. Meat eating Indians also do not kill or eat monkeys. Killing and eating monkeys is a taboo and illegal in India.

Offal is the internal organs of butchered animals, and trotters in addition to such and such sweetbreads and kidney. Offal is a traditional part of many European and Asian cuisines, including such dishes as the steak and kidney pie in the United Kingdom or callos at the madrileña in Spain. Haggis has been Scotland’s national dish since the time of Robert Burns. In northeast Brazil, there is a similar dish to haggis called “buchada”, made with goats’ stomach. In some regions, such as the European Union, the name “bovine spongiform encephalopathy” (“mad cow disease”) and similar diseases have been issued from the food chain as specified risk materials. Although eating the stomach of a goat, cow, sheep, may buffalo might be taboo, ancient cheesemaking techniques utilize stomachs (which contain rennet) for turning milk into cheese, a possible taboo process. Newer techniques for making cheese include a chemical process with artificial rennet. This means that the process by which cheese is made is a factor in the determination of whether or not it is prohibited by strict vegetarians.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) data reports pork the most widely eaten meat in the world. Consumption of pigs is forbidden in Islam, Judaism and some Christian denominations, such as Seventh-day Adventists. This prohibition is set out in the holy texts of the concerned religions, eg Qur’an 16: 115, Leviticus 11: 7-8 and Deuteronomy 14: 8. Middle East: The Phoenicians, Egyptians and Babylonians. In some instances, the taboo extended beyond eating pork, and it was also taboo to touch or even look at pigs. The original reason for this taboo is debated. Maimonides seem to have thought the uncleanness of pigs was self-evident, but mentions with particular aversion to their propensity to eat feces. In the 19th century, the people of the Middle East have been tempted by the trichina parasite, but this explanation is now out of favor. James George Frazer suggests that in ancient Israel, Egypt and Syria, the pig was originally a sacred animal, which could not be eaten or touched; the taboo survived to be a time when the pig was no longer considered as sacred, and was explained by reference to its being unclean. More recently, Marvin Harris is in the middle of an ecological and socio-economic level; For example, pigs are not suitable for living in the climate, and therefore require more than one or more of these animals. As such, raising pigs was seen as a wasteful and decadent practice. Other explanations are offered for the purpose of being able to eat and drink in their natural dietary habits. The willingness to consume meat sets that are commonly eaten (cattle, sheep, goats, etc.) who would naturally eat only plants. Mary Douglas has suggested that the reason for the taboo against the pig in Judaism is three-fold: (i) it trangresses the category of ungulates, because it has a split hoof but does not like the cud, (ii) it eats carrion and (iii) it was eaten by non-Israelites. The willingness to consume meat sets that are commonly eaten (cattle, sheep, goats, etc.) who would naturally eat only plants. Mary Douglas has suggested that the reason for the taboo against the pig in Judaism is three-fold: (i) it trangresses the category of ungulates, because it has a split hoof but does not like the cud, (ii) it eats carrion and (iii) it was eaten by non-Israelites. The willingness to consume meat sets that are commonly eaten (cattle, sheep, goats, etc.) who would naturally eat only plants. Mary Douglas has suggested that the reason for the taboo against the pig in Judaism is three-fold: (i) it trangresses the category of ungulates, because it has a split hoof but does not like the cud, (ii) it eats carrion and (iii) it was eaten by non-Israelites.

Poppy seeds are used as condiments in many cultures. In Singapore, poppy seeds are classified as “prohibited goods” by the Central Narcotics Bureau (CNB).

The book of Leviticus in the Bible classifies the rabbit as unclean because it does not have a split hoof, even though it does not include much digested material (equivalent to “chewing the cud” among ruminants). The consumption of rabbit is allowed in Sunni Islam, and is popular in many-Sunni countries (eg Egypt, where it is a traditional ingredient in molokheyya), but it is forbidden in the Ja’fari jurisprudence of Twelver Shia Islam.

In most Western cultures, rats and mice are considered to be unclean vermin or pets and thus unfit for human consumption, traditionally being seen as carriers of plague. However, rats are commonly eaten in rural Thailand and Vietnam and other parts of Indochina. Cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus and Thryonomys gregorianus) and some species of field mice are a rich source of protein in Africa. Bamboo rats are also commonly eaten in the poorer parts of Southeast Asia. In Ghana, Thryonomys swinderianus locally referred to as “Akrantie”, “Grasscutter” and (incorrectly) as “Bush rat” is a common food item. The proper common name for this rodent is “Greater Cane Rat”, although it is not only a relative issue of porcupines and guinea pigs that inhabits Africa, south of the Saharan Desert. In 2003, the subject of this article was published in the United States of America because of an outbreak of at least nine human cases of monkeypox, a disease never before seen in the Western Hemisphere. Historically, rats and mice have also been used in the West during times of emergency, such as during the Siege of Vicksburg and the Siege of Paris. Dormice were also domesticated and raised for food in Ancient Rome and by Etruscans; to this day the edible dormouse (Glis glis) is considered a rare delicacy in Slovenia and Croatia. In some Asian countries, mice are eaten, and go by the name of vole. In France, rats are cooked with the fire of broken wine and eaten, dubbed as ” cooper’s entrecote ”. In some communities the muskrat (which is not a rat at all) is hunted for its meat (and fur) in some parts of Flanders where it is served as waterkonijn (water rabbit). See also under “Fish” for consumption of beaver tails. Nutria, another large rodent, has been hunted or raised for food in the United States. Rats were also traditionally consumed by some communities in the Indian state of Bihar. Consumption of any sort of rodent, or material originating from rodents, is forbidden in Judaism.

Islam strictly forbids the consumption of reptiles, such as crocodiles and snakes. Eating reptiles is also forbidden in Judaism. In other cultures, such foods are allotted as delicacies, and the animals are raised commercially.

As they are molluscs, snails are not kosher. Snails are not allowed to be eaten in Islam because it is not Halal.

Squirrel is neither Halal nor Kosher.

In some versions of Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism, vegetables of the onion genus are taboo. Many Hindus discourage eating onion and garlic along with non-vegetarian food during festivals or Hindu holy months of Shrawan, puratassi and Kartik. However, shunning onion and garlic is not very popular among Hindus as compared to avoiding non-vegetarian foods, so many people do not follow this custom. Jams not only abstain from consumption of meat, but also do not eat root vegetables (such as carrots, potatoes, radish, turnips, etc.) as they grow up and they believe in ahimsa. Chinese Buddhist traditionally prohibits garlic, Allium chinense, asafoetida, shallot, and Allium victorialis (victory onion or mountain leek), while Kashmiri Brahmins forbid “strong flavored” foods. This encompasses garlic, onion, and spices such as black pepper and chili pepper, believing that pungent flavors on the tongue inflame the baser emotions. In Yazidism, the eating of lettuce and butter is taboo. The Muslim religious teacher and scholar, Falah Hassan Juma, links to the beliefs of evil founders in his long history of persecution by Muslims and Christians. Historical theory claims one ruthless potentate who controlled the city of Mosul in the 13th century ordered an early Yazidi saint executed. The enthusiastic crowd then pelted the corpse with heads of lettuce. The followers of Pythagoras were vegetarians, and “Pythagorean” at one time came to mean “vegetarian”. However, their creed prohibited the eating of beans. The reason is unclear: perhaps the flatulence they cause, but most likely for magico-religious reasons. Vegetables like broccoli, while not taboo, can be avoided by observing Jews and other religions due to the possibility of insecurity. Likewise, such fruits and vegetables are recommended to be avoided as often as they can. The common Egyptian dish mulukhiyah, a soup whose primary ingredient is jute leaves, was banned by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah sometime during his reign (996-1021 CE). The ban applied specifically to mulukhiyah, and also to other foodstuffs said to be eaten by Sunnis. While the ban was eventually lifted after the end of his reign, the Druze,

Sunni Islam permits Muslims to consume the flesh of whales that have died of natural causes, a famous sunni hadith which quotes Muhammad’s approval of such. Whale meat is forbidden (haram) in Shia Islam. In the world of whale meat, it is not traditionally forbidden.

Some religions – including Buddhism, Islam, Jainism, Rastafarian movement, Bahá’í Faith, and various branches of Christianity such as the Baptists, the Church of God In Christ, Methodists, the Latter-day Saints, Seventh-day Adventists and the Iglesia neither Cristo – forbid or the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The Hebrew Bible describes Nazirite vow (Numbers 6: 1-21), which includes abstinence from alcohol, and probably brewing beer (according to the Septuagint translation and the Bauer lexicon: σικερα, from the Akkadian shikaru, for barley beer). The New JPS translation is: “wine and any other intoxicant”. Other versions such as the NIV prohibit both alcohol and all alcohol derived products such as wine vinegar. There is no general taboo against alcohol in Judaism. There are also cultural taboos against the consumption of alcohol, reflected for example in the Teetotalism or Temperance movement. There is also something of a cultural taboo in several countries, against the consumption of alcohol by women during pregnancy for health reasons, as seen, for example, which in the Maternity Protection Convention, 2000 by ILO.

Some religions prohibit drinking or eating blood or food made from blood. In Islam the consumption of blood is prohibited (Haraam). Halal animals should be properly slaughtered to drain out the blood. Unlike in other traditions, this is not a question of whether or not it is considered ritually unclean or Najis, with certain narratives prescribing ablutions (in the case of no availability of water) if contact is made with it. In Judaism all mammal and bird meat (not fish) is salted to remove the blood. Jews follow the teaching in Leviticus, that since “the life of the animal is in the blood”, no person may eat (or drink) the blood. Iglesia neither Cristo and Jehovah’s Witnesses prohibit eating or drinking any blood. According to the Bible, Exodus chapters 12, 24, 29, Matthew 26:29 and Hebrews). In the first century, Christians, both form Jews, and new Gentile converts, were in dispute as to which particular features of Mosaic law were to be accepted and upheld by them. The Apostolic Decree suggests that, among other things, it is necessary to abstain from

“Hot drinks” are taboo for members of the Church of Jesus Christ Latter-day Saints. The term is misleading as the ban is applied exclusively to coffee and tea (ie not hot cocoa or herbal teas). The Word of Wisdom, outlines prohibited and allowed substances. While not banned, some Mormons avoid caffeine in general, including cola drinks. Members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks. There is a well reported story, possibly apocryphal, that some Catholics urged Pope Clement VII (1478-1534) to ban coffee, calling it “devil’s beverage”. After tasting the beverage, the Pope is said to have remarked that the drink was “… so delicious that it would be a sin to let only misbelievers drink it.” (See the History of coffee.)

While breast milk is universally accepted for infant nutrition, some cultures see the consumption of breast milk after weaning as taboo.

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