Basic stability refers to a person’s ability to stabilize their nucleus. Stability in this context should be considered as an ability to control the position and movement of the nucleus. Thus, if a person has a greater stability of his core, he has greater control over the position and movement of that part of his body. The core of the body is often involved in other body movements, such as limbs, and it is believed that by improving trunk stability, a person’s ability to perform these other movements can also be improved. . The central region of the body is sometimes called the torso or trunk, although there are some differences in the muscles identified as constituting them. The main muscles involved in trunk stability are pelvic floor muscles, transversus abdominis, multifidus, internal and external obliques, rectus abdominis, spinal erectors (sacrospinalis), especially longissimus thoracis and diaphragm. The minor muscles involved include latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus and trapezius. Notably, breathing, including the action of the diaphragm, can significantly influence the posture and movement of the nucleus; this is particularly evident with respect to the extreme ranges of inhalation and exhalation. On this basis, how a person breathes can influence their ability to control their core. Some researchers have argued that the generation of intra-abdominal pressure, caused by the activation of the trunk muscles and especially the transverse abdomen, can be used to support the lumbar spine. Typically, the nucleus is associated with the body’s center of gravity, which is above the region of the second groups of sacral vertebrae, and the stability is associated with the isometric or static force. In addition, it is the lumbar spine that is primarily responsible for posture and stability, thus providing the necessary strength for stability especially used in dynamic sports.
Whenever a person moves, to lift something or simply to move from one position to another, the central region is stretched first. This tension is usually done unconsciously and in conjunction with a change in breathing pattern. An example to try is to sit on a chair and walk to a table to grab a cup. This movement is first accompanied by tension in the central region of the abdomen and can be felt by placing a hand on the abdomen as the movement progresses. As the load increases, the key muscles contract around viscera, which are compressible, to form a stable core region similar to a ball against which the forces are balanced in coordination with the posture. It is commonly accepted that trunk stability is essential for maintaining a vertical posture and particularly for movements and lifts that require extra effort, such as lifting a heavy weight from the ground to a table. Without the stability of the trunk, the lower back is not supported from the inside and can be injured by the tension caused by the exercise. It is also believed that poor stability of the trunk can lead to low back pain and lower limb injuries. Basic stability model research is under-supported and many of the benefits attributed to this method of exercise have not been demonstrated. At best, basic stability training has the same benefits as non-specific general exercise (see Lederman article 09) and walking. Trunk or trunk-specific exercise has not demonstrated the preventive benefits against injuries in sports or to improve athletic performance.
Training methods to develop and maintain core stability include:
The cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebral column consists of a total of 24 presacral vertebrae and their main functions are to protect the spinal cord, providing a fixation site for many body muscles. They also work by distributing body weight when standing. Many injuries to the spine occur as a result of road accidents, falls, sports and recreation. Although it is impossible to prevent such events, the increase of intra-abdominal pressure and strengthening of the musculature in the back, while keeping a neutral spine, can minimize injuries such as hernias, sprains and sprains.
The correlation between having a significant amount of core strength and the health of the spine has been well documented by many studies in the past. Some of theseStudies have quantified the effects of abdominal muscle antagonism on the stabilization of the lumbar spine by increasing intra-abdominal pressure to maintain a straight lumbar spine and avoid rounding during physical activity and using such as the “Valsalva maneuver”. A simple exercise used to strengthen the abdominals (rectus abdominus, internal / external obliques, and transverse abdominus) uses the isometric or “static” behavior known as the plank.