Training masks represent a new generation of performance solutions that allow users to actively work on their respiratory muscle fitness. Originally designed to simulate altitude training, the concept has not been presented in several research trials. Training in hypoxic (low oxygen) environments increases red blood cell mass and improves oxygen transport, giving athletes measurable improvement in performance when competing at sea level. The use of training masks, however, has no measurable effect on hemoglobin, hematocrit levels and oxygen transport in athletes. Although they do not alter the oxygen concentration, they add resistance to the respiratory muscles by limiting the air supply and trigger an adaptive physiological response. The muscles of the breathing, the diaphragm, the intercostals, the assistant musculature, must be trained like any other muscle to increase the resistance to fatigue and maximize the performance. Respiratory Strength Training (RMT) is a specialized training method developed specifically to condition the muscles of breathing. RMT has been shown to dramatically improve strength, speed, power and endurance in athletes. Training masks allow athletes to enhance their physical fitness of the respiratory muscles without having to confine themselves to fixed devices or special facilities. By limiting the user’s breathing, these new devices can improve cardiorespiratory fitness, leading to better sports performance.
Category: Physical exercise
StreetStrider is the brand name of a mobile elliptical trainer. The StreetStrider consists of a T-shaped lower chassis with two front wheels and a rear wheel containing a drive assembly, and a vertical chassis to which two reciprocating arms are attached. Two elongate platforms on each side of the lower frame are attached to the cranks as part of the drive assembly which, like the bicycle transmission systems, also includes a hub, a rotating axle and an internal drive system. hub gear that translates the rotation of the axle. the hub. The StreetStrider reader is either chain or chainless direct drive, depending on the model. The lower end of each arm lever is attached to the front end of each foot platform, which, by connecting to the rear of the rotating crank arm and the front to the swing arm lever, usually moves on an elliptical path. The device also includes a tilt mechanism for steering, as well as multiple brakes and gears. It was developed by David W. Kraus.
The split jack, sometimes called as the split jumping jack, is a form of a warmup exercise and may be regarded as a variation of the traditional jumping jack. It is similar to the split jump, however in the latter the arms do not move, and stay stationary at the sides of the torso.
A skipping rope (British English) or jump rope (American English) is a tool used in the sport of jump rope where one or more participants jump over a rope swung so that it passes under their feet and over their heads. There are multiple subsets of jump rope including: single freestyle, single speed, pairs, three person speed (double dutch), and three person freestyle (double dutch freestyle). The events are often separated by gender and age. There are hundreds of competitive teams all around the world. There are a few major organisations that support jump rope as a sport as seen below, schools rarely have jump rope teams, and states do not sanction official events for high school or elementary school. In freestyle events, jumpers use a variety of basic and advanced techniques in a routine of one minute, which is judged by a head judge, content judges, and performance judges. In speed events, a jumper alternates their feet with the rope going around the jumper every time one of their feet hit the ground for 30 seconds, one minute, or three minutes. The jumper is judged on the number of times the right foot touches the ground in those times.
No pain, no gain (or “no gain without pain”) is an exercise motto that promises greater value rewards for the price of hard and even painful work. Under this concept, competitive professionals, such as athletes and artists, are required to endure pain (physical suffering) and stress (mental / emotional suffering) to achieve professional excellence.
The NIA technique is a body / mind fitness program that originally meant impact-free aerobics, a health and fitness alternative that emerged in the 1980s, and has evolved to include integrative neurological practices and teachings. The Nia Technique was founded in 1983 by Debbie Rosas and Carlos AyaRosas in the San Francisco area. Nia combines martial arts, modern dance arts and yoga in a music workout.
Phillip Mills (born February 13, 1955 in Auckland) is a former track and field athlete born in New Zealand. He is the founder and CEO of Les Mills International and one of the founders of Pure Advantage, a green business advocacy group.
Phillip Mills was born into an athletic family. His father Les, his mother Colleen and his sister Donna all represented New Zealand at the Olympic and / or Commonwealth Games in athletics. Mills competed in the 110m hurdles at the 1974 Commonwealth Games in Christchurch and the 110m and 400m hurdles at the 1978 Commonwealth Games in Edmonton, Alberta. He studied athletics at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and graduated in philosophy in 1978.
Long slow distance (LSD) is a form of aerobic endurance training in running and cycling. Physiological adaptations to LSD training include improved cardiovascular function, improved thermoregulatory function, improved mitochondrial, increased oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, and increased utilization of fat for fuel. Ernst van Aaken, a German physician and coach, is generally recognized as the founder of the long slow distance method of endurance training. Long slow distance training is a form of continuous training performed at a constant pace of low to moderate intensity over an extended distance or duration. The moderate training intensity of LSD is effective in improving endurance and maximum oxygen uptake in individuals who are undertrained or moderately trained. Long slow distance training is thought not to be effective when used in isolation by well-trained athletes, who in order to achieve further improvements in metabolic conditioning require higher training intensities that are not sustainable at the work durations associated with LSD.
Tim Noakes, a professor of exercise and sports science at the University of Cape Town, suggests that it was Arthur Newton who initially proposed that running longer distances at slower paces was the most effective training method for beginning runners. Noakes asserts that after this method was rediscovered in the 1960s, Joe Henderson coined the term “long slow distance”.
Tony Little (born September 16, 1956) is an American television fitness personality and businessman, best known for his fitness infomercial products. Little is a certified personal trainer and identifies himself as “America’s Personal Trainer”. The Florida Times-Union, of Jacksonville, describes him as being known for his “booming-voice enthusiasm” and long blond ponytail. As noted by Success.com, Little is known for his use of the catchphrase “You can do it.”
A jumping jack (Canada & US) or star jump (UK and other Commonwealth nations), also called side-straddle hop in the US military, is a physical jumping exercise performed by jumping to a position with the legs spread wide and the hands touching overhead, sometimes in a clap, and then returning to a position with the feet together and the arms at the sides. The name origin for the jumping jack exercise has sometimes erroneously been identified as World War I U.S. General John J. “Black Jack” Pershing, who is said to have developed the exercise, but in fact the name comes from the jumping jack children’s toy, which makes similar arm swing and leg splay motions when the strings are tugged. “Star jump” refers to the person’s appearance with legs and arms spread.
Les Mills International is a New Zealand-based company that operates internationally and offers fitness classes in a group of musical drills distributed to health clubs. Les Mills’ first program was BodyStep, with BodyPump being the first program published internationally.
Latin Jam Workout is a Latin dance fitness program created by professional athlete and choreographer JP Santana. Founded in 2007 in Los Angeles, California, Latin Jam Workout combines techno and Latin music with dance and aerobics moves. It’s a fusion of Latin dance steps such as Salsa, Merengue, Raeggaeton, Cumbia, Samba, Soca, Belly-Dancing and the faster rhythms of Pop and Techno. Latin Jam Workout is taught in fitness venues, gyms, dance studios, schools and community centers by certified instructors.
Classes usually last one hour and are divided into an initial 15-minute warm-up, a basic segment and a final chill. Latin Jam classes use an exclusive musical mix. The warm-up includes hectic pop and techno rhythms to increase body temperature and heart rate, while the middle part of the class features a mix of fast and slow rhythms to combine aerobic training and resistance training.
Jazzercise is a dance fitness franchise company founded by Judi Sheppard Missett in 1969 and headquartered in Carlsbad, California. Jazzercise combines dance, strength, and resistance training with popular music for a full-body workout. The company currently has over 8,300 franchisees worldwide in 32 countries.
Judi Sheppard Missett created Jazzercise in Chicago, IL in 1969 as a student at Northwestern University. Sheppard Missett was teaching at a dance studio and noticed her classes had high dropout rates. Realizing students were attending for physical fitness and not to become highly technically proficient in dance, Shepard Missett began to hold “just for fun” classes that began with a jazz warmup. These classes were eventually renamed “Jazzercise.” [[Jazzercise#cite note-2|  ]]
Gilad Janklowicz (born July 27, 1954) is a fitness personality born in Israel, known for the longest running US fitness show Bodies in Motion and for his Total Body Sculpt show with Gilad. Bodies in Motion is a 30-minute aerobics program that was launched in 1983. It was the first ESPN fitness show broadcast from 1985 to 1996. More recently, it aired on Discovery Fit. and Health. Gilad also organized a game show where the participants had to guess by watching an instructor to whom Body in Motion belonged the muscles or the pack of six (after each round the competitors showed less and less body, so it became more difficult as as the game progressed). This show was called ‘Gilad’s Minds In Motion’ and it was broadcast on the History Channel 2.5 network from 1999 to 2002. “Total Body Sculpt with Gilad” is a half-hour workout. From 2004 to 2010, the series aired on FitTV until Discovery put its health and fitness channels in touch. He is currently seen on JLTV Jewish Life Television. Gilad was born in 1954 and grew up in Israel. Janklowicz has been a great athlete dedicated to fitness since high school. Gilad is also the creator of more than 30 video workout titles. Gilad has been featured in many print publications. In March 2007, Gilad was inducted into the National Fitness Hall of Fame. In September 2007, Gilad released 3 new fitness DVDs from its Total Body Sculpt series, as seen on FiTV. In January 2008, Gilad released the Gilad Express Workout.
Interval training is a type of training that involves a series of low- to high-intensity workouts interspersed with rest or relief periods. The high-intensity periods are typically at or close to anaerobic exercise, while the recovery periods involve activity of lower intensity. Varying the intensity of effort exercises the heart muscle, providing a cardiovascular workout, improving aerobic capacity and permitting the person to exercise for longer and/or at more intense levels. Interval training can refer to the organization of any cardiovascular workout (e.g., cycling, running, rowing). It is prominent in training routines for many sports, but is particularly employed by runners.
The International Pole Dance Fitness Association (IPDFA) promotes pole dancing as a form of fitness exercise. The organisation acts as a supervisory body for the sport and annually organizes the International Pole Championship (IPC). It has a database of pole dancing studios and instructors around the world and also trains/accredits instructors. The organization was founded by Ania Przeplasko (pronounced pshe plaz ko) in 2007. At the time, pole dancing was gaining popularity as a fitness program worldwide, yet was not taken seriously as a recognized sport. This is partially because there was no international body that gave structure to the sport. IPDFA was created to organize the sport on an international level in both men’s and women’s divisions.
Membership is free, but to be an IPDFA member studio, instructors have to be First Aid and CPR-certified. They must submit videos of their classes so that IPFDA evaluators can review the instructors’ technical level and their teaching ability. Only IPDFA-certified instructors automatically qualify to be members. Member instructors are also given the opportunity to conduct workshops in member studios worldwide.
High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is a form of interval training, a cardiovascular exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less intense recovery periods, until too exhausted to continue. Though there is no universal HIIT session duration, these intense workouts typically last under 30 minutes, with times varying based on a participant’s current fitness level. HIIT workouts provide improved athletic capacity and condition as well as improved glucose metabolism. Compared with other regimens, HIIT may not be as effective for treating hyperlipidemia and obesity, or improving muscle and bone mass. However, research has shown that HIIT regimens produced significant reductions in the fat mass of the whole-body. Some researchers also note that HIIT requires “an extremely high level of subject motivation” and question whether the general population could safely or practically tolerate the extreme nature of the exercise regimen.
Gospel Aerobics is a form of rhythmic aerobic exercise that uses gospel music, spiritual encouragement and motivation during the routine. The term ‘Gospel Aerobics’ and the specific concept are both designed by Hope Mason, based in Maryland, who was joined by her husband Marc Mason to make the production of the show ‘Gospel Aerobics’ a reality. The concept included the phrase “Aerobic Gospel – Adoring God with the Entire Man: Spirit, Soul and Body”, in order to affect the whole man. In 1996, public access to the now defunct Baltimore Cable Access Corporation (BCAC) in Baltimore City provided training on the Coppin State campus to those aspiring to produce television programs in the area. In 1996, the television program “Gospel Aerobics” was produced by the couple, who then won an award in 1997 for the pioneering effort that was broadcast on the BCAC for one season. It was the first of its kind. Now, aerobics gospel classes are now offered across the United States (https://www.hhs.gov/secretary/about/speeches/sp20110607.html) and abroad by licensed instructors in churches, video productions, local TV shows and fitness centers.
Fartlek, which means “speed play” in Swedish, is a training method that blends continuous training with interval training. Fartlek runs are a very simple form of a long distance run. Fartlek training “is simply defined as periods of fast running intermixed with periods of slower running.” For some people, this could be a mix of jogging and sprinting, but for beginners it could be walking with jogging sections added in when possible. A simple example of what a runner would do during a fartlek run is “sprint all out from one light pole to the next, jog to the corner, give a medium effort for a couple of blocks, jog between four light poles and sprint to a stop sign, and so on, for a set total time or distance.” The variable intensity and continuous nature of the exercise places stress on both the aerobic and anaerobic systems. It differs from traditional interval training in that it is unstructured; intensity and/or speed varies, as the athlete wishes. Fartlek training is generally associated with running, but can include almost any kind of exercise.
Swedish coach Gösta Holmér developed fartlek in 1937, and, since then, many physiologists have adopted it. It was designed for the downtrodden Swedish cross country running teams that had been beaten throughout the 1920s by Paavo Nurmi and the Finns. Holmér’s plan used a faster-than-race pace and concentrated on both speed and endurance training.
Double Dutch is a game in which two long jump ropes turning in opposite directions are jumped by one or more players jumping simultaneously. It is popular worldwide. Competitions in double Dutch range from block parties to the world level. During the spring of 2009, double Dutch became a varsity sport in New York City public high schools. It has been fancifully debated whether double Dutch came over with the first Dutch settlers or appeared in the first half of the 1900s.
Playing double Dutch involves at least three people: one or more jumping, and two turning the ropes. A jumper usually performs tricks that may involve gymnastics or breakdance, and may also incorporate fancy foot movements.
Aqua cycling or aqua spinning is a physical training technique. In water cycling, a stationary bike-like device is immersed in a pool, while the cyclist’s upper body stays above the water.
Aerobics Oz Style is an Australian television series of aerobic exercise, aired in Australia on weekends, then on Network Ten at 6:00 am and 6:30 am and distributed in many other countries. It was canceled by Channel Ten at the end of 2005. AOS continues to be broadcast on Australian television via AURORA Channel 183 – on Foxtel Digital, Optus and Austar platforms – which broadcasts Aerobics Oz Style every day. 06:30 and 14:00 AEST. In Europe Aerobics Oz Style is broadcast daily (weekends included) on Sky Sports 1 or Sky Sports 2 at 6:00 (GMT) and it is repeated daily on Sky Sports 3 or Sky Sports 4 at 11:30 and 16:30. In 2011, Sky Sports began broadcasting additional shows of the show. The program is now broadcast in the early hours of the morning, from 00:30 (GMT). The series began in 1982 and continued until 2005, with more than 4,500 episodes produced by the production company Zero1Zero (now Silk Studios). The format remained constant throughout his race. Each broadcast lasted 30 minutes divided into four segments, one of warming exercises, two main exercise segments and a stretching / cooling segment. An instructor leads the exercises, with four demonstrators on the side and behind. Subsequent exhibitions were shot outside in scenic locations around Sydney, in previous shows an indoor studio was used. Each show had an exercise theme. The main pillars since its creation included high and low legs, abdominals and tonic muscles. Other themes later included kick-boxing, low impact with a mix of Latin dance and pilates. Older styles included light weights and dynabands.
Lactate inflection point (LIP), is the exercise intensity at which the blood concentration of lactate and/or lactic acid begins to exponentially increase. It is often expressed as 85% of maximum heart rate or 75% of maximum oxygen intake. When exercising at or below the LT, any lactate produced by the muscles is removed by the body without it building up. The onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) is often confused with the lactate threshold. With a higher exercise intensity the lactate production exceeds at a rate which it cannot be broken down, the blood lactate concentration will show an increase equal to 4.0mM; it then accumulates at the muscle and then moves to the bloodstream. Regular endurance exercise leads to adaptations in skeletal muscle which prevent lactate levels from rising. This is mediated via activation of PGC-1α which alters the isoenzyme composition of the LDH complex and decreases the activity of the lactate generating enzyme LDHA, while increasing the activity of the lactate metabolizing enzyme LDHB.
Aerobic conditioning is a process in which the heart and lungs are trained to pump blood more efficiently, which allows more oxygen to be delivered to the muscles and organs. Aerobic conditioning is the use of continuous and rhythmic movements of large muscle groups to strengthen the heart and lungs (cardiovascular system). Improved aerobic fitness occurs when an athlete is exposed to increased oxygen uptake and metabolism, but to maintain this level of aerobic fitness, the athlete must maintain or increase their training gradually to increase their aerobic fitness. its aerobic conditioning. The aerobic condition is usually reached by cardiovascular exercises such as running, swimming, aerobics, etc. A stronger heart does not pump more blood by beating faster but beating more effectively. Trained endurance athletes can have heart rates at rest as low as the 28 beats per minute reported in people like Miguel Indurain or 32 beats per minute of Lance Armstrong, both professional cyclists at the highest level.
Aerobic conditioning causes the heart to be more efficient at pumping blood around the body, it does so in many ways:
An aerial twist is an acrobatic rocker that incorporates a 180 ° rotation during the peak of the flip height. Gymnasts normally perform twisting with the legs together for faster rotation and a more aesthetic performance. Tricksters normally perform torsion with their legs apart; mainly for the style. Many martial arts tricksters first learn this movement tend to start more like a butterfly twist than an antenna. In the deception community, this movement can be done from a current start, a hop jump, standing, or another round in a combo.
L’exercice aérobique (aussi appelé cardio) est un exercice physique d’intensité faible à élevée qui dépend principalement du processus de génération d’énergie aérobie. Aérobie signifie littéralement «se rapportant à, impliquant ou exigeant de l’oxygène libre» et se réfère à l’utilisation de l’oxygène pour répondre adéquatement aux demandes d’énergie pendant l’exercice par le biais du métabolisme aérobie. En général, les activités d’intensité légère à modérée qui sont suffisamment soutenues par le métabolisme aérobie peuvent être effectuées pendant de longues périodes. Lorsqu’ils sont pratiqués de cette manière, les exercices cardio-vasculaires / aérobiques sont des courses / jogging de moyenne à longue distance, la natation, le vélo et la marche, selon les premières recherches approfondies sur l’exercice aérobique menées dans les années 1960 sur plus de 5 000 membres de l’US Air Force. Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper.
Yogi Haider born Shamshad Haider is a yoga teacher living in Pakistan. He is the founder of Yoga Pakistan and Way of Nature through which he teaches yoga and meditation. He studied yoga in Burma, Tibet, Nepal and India, including from S. N. Goenka. Haider belongs to the Pakistani province of Punjab. He has been teaching yoga since 1994. His organization teaches yoga to more than 10,000 students in Islamabad, Karachi, Rawalpindi and Lahore. His students include Pakistani politicians such as Qaim Ali Shah (chief minister of Sindh) and Ghulam Mustafa Khar (former governor of Punjab). Haider gives a free public education. Haider says his ambition is to imitate Ramdev Baba and popularize yoga among Pakistanis. Haider has been called as the face of yoga in Pakistan. He has been described as an Indian yogi, simple, peaceful and confident. He speaks English, Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi, Arabic and Nepali.
Yoga (Sanskrit, Sans,) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines that originated in ancient India. There is a wide variety of yoga schools, practices and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Some of the best known types of yoga are Hatha Yoga and Rāja Yoga. The origins of yoga have been speculated to go back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions; it is mentioned in the Rigveda, but probably developed around the sixth and fifth centuries BC, in the ascetic and śramaṇa movements of ancient India. The chronology of the first texts describing the practices of yoga is not clear, it is variously attributed to the Upanishads. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali date from the first half of the 1st millennium of the Christian era, but only gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. The texts of Hatha Yoga emerged around the 11th century with origins in Tantra. Yoga gurus from India then introduced yoga to the West, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the 1980s, yoga became popular as an exercise system throughout the western world. Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than just a physical exercise; he has a meditative and spiritual core. One of the six main orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu philosophy Samkhya. Many studies have attempted to determine the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia, asthma and heart disease. The results of these studies have been mixed and inconclusive. On December 1st 2016, yoga has been classified by UNESCO as intangible cultural heritage.
The Y Plan is an exercise program designed by Lesley Mowbray and Jill Gaskell for the London YMCA, and very popular in the UK in the 1990s. Choreographed by [Jane S. Linter] Highlighting short workouts but regular without specialized equipment, the first program-based book, The Y Plan, was published in 1990. TV presenter Anthea Turner was the public face of the Y Plan. alongside creators in many books, videos and magazine articles. Another video was made, titled Y-Plan Countdown, in which we made a 36-day exercise regimen, with 3 levels of difficulty.
The XBX (Ten Basic Exercises) Plan is an exercise program developed for the Royal Canadian Air Force for women. The program consists of charts that get progressively more difficult, and takes 12 minutes per day after users get past the beginning levels.
WWE Workout Series is a series of WWE fitness exercises, released December 2, 2014 on DVD in Region 1. The Workout series was designed by Joe DeFranco and based on similar training he designed for Paul Levesque ( better known as Triple H). Stephanie McMahon. Unlike other versions of WWE Home Video, the Workout series has nothing to do with professional wrestling or WWE studios, but rather with fitness.
Levesque is the men’s WWE Power Series coach while McMahon is the women’s WWE Fit Series coach. The two Workout Series videos take place at the WWE Performance Center in Orlando, Fla., And use the talents of NXT. In their respective workout videos, Levesque and McMahon discuss the challenges they face (Levesque’s career in the ring that is ending and McMahon passes three pregnancies) and who need to get back in shape. Both have hired a renowned coach, Joe DeFranco, to regain his fitness and decide to develop similar training plans for the general public. Aside from the archive training clips, DeFranco does not appear in the Workout series videos. The two videos of the Workout series contain a warm-up video and a series of exercises, as well as a calendar to follow to get fit.
World Fit is a program of the USOC (USOC) and USOP (Olympians and Paralympians Association) to promote the fitness and ideals of the Olympics to schoolchildren through fitness programs for children and childhood obesity. programs. World Fit is part of the largest global network for the prevention of obesity, EPODE International Network
World Fit was founded by three Olympic athletes: US Olympic and Paralympic athletes adopt schools for life, promote a health and fitness culture for children, inspire students about the importance of health and fitness, and promote the Olympic values of perseverance, respect and fair play. Approximately 7,000 US Olympians and Paralympians are recruited by the USOP to adopt at least one school and talk to their students every year about the importance of fitness activities and a healthier lifestyle, and promote school walking programs. Olympic athletes and Paralympic athletes encourage students to participate in the World March, which takes place every spring on the school campus, where students, teachers and family walk every day for six weeks.
Whole body vibration (WBV) is a generic term used when vibrations (mechanical oscillations) of any frequency are transferred to the human body. Humans are exposed to vibration through a contact surface that is in a mechanical vibrating state. Human’s are generally exposed to many different forms of vibration in their daily lives. This could be a driver’s seat, a moving train platform, through a power tool, a training platform, or one of countless other devices. It is a potential form of occupational hazard, particularly after years of exposure. When high frequency vibrations (above 50 Hz) enter though the hands, occupational safety concerns may arise. For example, when working with a jackhammer and the development of vibration white finger. Exposures and limits have been estimated in the ISO 5349-1 for hand-transmitted vibration. Whole body vibration training as a form of physical exercise can offer some fitness and health benefits, but it is not clear if it is as beneficial as regular physical exercise. A review in 2014 came to the conclusion that there is little and inconsistent evidence that acute and/or chronic whole body vibration could improve the performance of competitive and/or elite athletes.
Weighted clothing is clothing that adds weight to various parts of the body, usually as part of resistance training. The effect is achieved by attaching weighted parts to the body (or other clothing) that leaves hands free to grab objects. Unlike weights or machines, weighted clothing can leave users more able to perform various movements and manual work. In some cases, some weighted garments may be worn under normal clothing to conceal their use to allow exercise in occasional environments. The use of weighted clothing is a form of resistance training, usually a kind of bodybuilding. In addition to the major effect of gravity on the person, it also adds resistance during ballistic movements, due to more force needed to overcome the inertia of the heavier masses, as well as a greater impetus that requires deceleration at the end of the movement. injury. The method can increase muscle mass or lose weight; however, there have been concerns about the safety of certain weight uses, such as the weight of the wrists and ankles. It is normally done in the form of small weights, tied to increase stamina when performed in long repetitive events, such as running, swimming, punching, kicking or jumping. Heavier clothes can also be used for slow, controlled movements, and as a way to add resistance to bodyweight exercises.
Weight training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles. It utilizes the force of gravity in the form of weighted bars, dumbbells or weight stacks in order to oppose the force generated by muscle through concentric or eccentric contraction. Weight training uses a variety of specialized to target specific muscle groups and types of movement. Sports where strength training is central are bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, and strongman, highland games, shot put, discus throw, and javelin throw. Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen, notably: American football, baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, mixed martial arts, rowing, rugby league, rugby union, track and field, and wrestling. Strength training for other sports and physical activities is popular.
Strength training is an inclusive term that describes all exercises devoted toward increasing physical strength. Weight training is a type of strength training that uses weights, Eccentric Training or muscular resistance to increase strength. Endurance training is associated with aerobic exercise while flexibility training is associated with stretching exercise like yoga or pilates. Weight training is often used as a synonym for strength training, but is actually a specific type within the more inclusive category. Contrary to popular belief, weight training can be beneficial for both men and women.
Weight cutting is the practice of rapid weight loss before a sports competition. It happens most often to qualify for a lower weight category (usually in combat sports, where weight is a significant advantage) or in sports where it is advantageous to weigh as little as possible (including equestrian sports). There are two types of weight cutting: One method is to lose weight in the form of fat and muscle in the weeks leading up to an event; the other is losing weight in the form of water in the last days before the competition. Nutrition experts will rarely give advice on how to reduce weight safely or effectively, and simply recommend not to cut weight at all. However, many athletes choose to do so because they want an advantage in their sport.
The warm-up is prepared for physical exertion or performance by exercising or practicing gently before. The warm-up is done before a performance or practice. Athletes, singers, actors and others warm up before stressing their muscles. He prepares the muscles for vigorous actions.
A warm-up usually consists of a gradual increase in the intensity of physical activity (a “pulse lift”), an exercise in joint mobility and stretching, followed by activity. For example, before running or playing an intense sport, the athlete can jog to warm up his muscles and increase his heart rate. It is important that the warm-ups are activity-specific, so that the muscles to be used are activated. The risks and benefits of combining stretching and warm-up are debatable, although it is generally thought that warm-up prepares the athlete both mentally and physically. In a meta-study of 32 high-quality studies, about 4/5 of the studies showed improvements in performance. Warm-up programs can improve the strength of the knee muscle, which in turn can reduce injuries. A complete warm-up program did not significantly reduce injuries in football compared to a control group.
Viparita Karani (literally upside down is considered alternatively as an asana or mudra in haṭha yoga.
The name comes from the Sanskrit words viparita meaning “inverted” or “inverted”, and Karani meaning “to do” or “to do”.
The VERB was a physical activity program of the US Government’s Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It included paid national print, online and television advertising, airing them on popular children’s channels and popular children’s magazines, for example. It ran from 2002 to 2006. The main goal of the VERB campaign was to increase and maintain physical activity among “pre-teens” (children aged 9 to 13). The campaign is based on social marketing principles (product, price, location and promotion) and aims culturally at this age group. It encourages changes in the lifestyle such as playing more and “trying new verbs”. An evaluation of the program in 2004 showed that it was expansive in scope. Of the children exposed, 96% said they understood at least one key message from the campaign. Children who reported being aware of the VERB campaign participated in 3.9 weekly sessions of leisure activities while unconscious children of the VERB reported 3 sessions of physical activity. This is a difference of 22% between the conscious and the untrained verb. In 2004, an additional program called “VERB Summer Scorecard” was born from the VERB national campaign. The VERB Summer Scorecard dashboard was developed for the first time by Fit Kentucky and the Lexington Fayette County Health Department (creation of the Lexington Tweens Nutrition and Fitness Coalition). It has since been adapted and disseminated in 22 communities, including Florida, Nebraska, Iowa and Colorado. The VERB Summer Dashboard encourages and stimulates physical activity opportunities by creating a “passport” system (scorecard) that allows children to follow their physical activity. It creates “activity-friendly communities” to facilitate exercise.
Vascular occlusion (VO) training or muscle occlusion training (also known as abbreviated blood restriction training) is an exercise approach involving the compression of the proximal vascular system to the active muscles to reduce venous return of the limb, which which causes venous accumulation. Longer terms also include a blood flow moderation exercise or a vascular occlusion moderation workout.
VOT and associated methods have gained popularity primarily as an alternative to the principle of progressive loading in specific weight training of hypertrophy, although more recent studies show superior results over simple strength training. VOT is nevertheless suggested as a possible solution to acquire muscular hypertrophy in “stubborn” body parts such as calves.
The vacuum exercise is an exercise which involves contracting some internal abdominal muscles, primarily the transverse abdominal muscle, and not as much the diaphragm. Repetitions of the exercise may be used as a form of endurance training, and light strength training. There is difficulty building strength in the muscle, as it is not easy to apply resistance training to the deeper internal muscles. The reasons for performing this exercise vary. It has been done for aesthetic purposes in bodybuilding competitions (to suck the abdomen in, making it appear less bulgy). It can be done to enhance overall core stability and strength. It is used in belly dance to actively perform flutters, engaging various fibres in the muscle selectively. Some believe the pressures it exerts upon the intestines are an aid to digestion. It is used in reverse breathing upon exhalation. People may also sometimes contract these muscles in public to reduce the appearance of their abdomen, consciously or unconsciously. “Sucking in” the stomach to appear thinner may be most common form of this exercise, but with little of the intensity or long-term purpose of the other forms.
The TriBalance yoga method is a form of hot yoga that incorporates aspects of several styles, including Ashtanga Yoga, Iyengar Yoga, Yin Yoga and Therapeutic Yoga. The style emphasizes the mind-body-spirit union and the action meditation. A concept behind the TriBalance method is the self-discipline and modernization of an ancient tradition. One aspect of early yoga was like a martial art, which warriors would practice to be strong and flexible for battles. Another is Tapas, which is a Sanskrit word that literally translates into heat. In yogic discipline, it means ecstasy, burning negativity on the path to enlightenment. It is an egalitarian yoga method that focuses on posture modifications and the use of props, designed to help students gradually become strong enough to perform the complete posture on their own. It focuses on mindfulness and action-meditation. From the moment they enter the room until they leave, students are encouraged to observe the silence between classes to calm their minds. Finally, the TriBalance method focuses on helping students discover their practice, rather than teaching them.
A test or examination (informal, exam or assessment) is an assessment designed to measure a candidate’s knowledge, skills, abilities, fitness or classification in many other areas (eg, beliefs). A test can be administered verbally, on paper, on a computer or in a predetermined area that requires a candidate to demonstrate or execute a skill set. The tests vary according to style, rigor and requirements. For example, in a closed book test, a candidate must generally rely on memory to respond to specific items, while in an open book test, a candidate may use one or more additional tools such as a reference book or a calculator. . A test can be administered formally or informally. An example of an informal test would be a reading test administered by a parent to a child. A formal test could be a final exam administered by a teacher in a classroom or I.Q. test administered by a psychologist in a clinic. Formal tests often give a mark or score to the test. A test score can be interpreted according to a standard or criterion, or sometimes both. The standard can be established independently, or by statistical analysis of a large number of participants. An exam is intended to test a child’s knowledge or willingness to give time to manipulate that subject. A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored consistently to ensure legality. Standardized tests are often used in education, professional certification, psychology (eg, MMPI), the military and many other areas. A non-standardized test is generally flexible in terms of scope and format, variable in terms of difficulty and significance. Since these tests are usually developed by individual instructors, the format and difficulty of these tests may not be widely adopted or used by other instructors or institutions. A non-standardized test can be used to determine the skill level of students, motivate students to study and provide feedback to students. In some cases, a teacher may develop non-standardized tests that resemble standardized tests in terms of scope, format and difficulty in order to prepare their students for a future standardized test. Finally, the frequency and scope of administration of non-standardized tests are highly variable and are generally limited by the length of the course period. For example, a classroom instructor may administer a test on a weekly basis or only twice a semester. Depending on the instructor’s or institution’s policy, the duration of each test may be as short as five minutes for a full course period. Unlike non-standardized tests, standardized tests are widely used, fixed in terms of scope, difficulty and format, and usually have significant consequences. Standardized tests are generally held on fixed dates, as determined by the test developer, the educational institution or governing body, which may or may not be administered by the instructor, held in class or limited by the class period. Although there is little variability between different copies of the same type of standardized test (for example, SAT or GRE), there is variability between different types of standardized tests. Any test that has significant consequences for the individual test taker is considered a high stakes test. A test may be developed and administered by an instructor, clinician, governing body or test provider. In some cases, the test developer may not be directly responsible for its administration. For example, Educational Testing Service (ETS), a nonprofit educational assessment and testing organization, develops standardized tests such as SAT but can not be directly involved in the administration or supervision of these tests. As with the development and administration of educational tests, the format and level of difficulty of the tests themselves are highly variable and there is no general consensus or standard for formats and difficulty of testing. Often, the format and difficulty of the test depends on the instructor’s educational philosophy, subject, class size, school policy, and the requirements of the accrediting or governing bodies. . In general, tests developed and administered by individual instructors are not standardized while tests developed by test organizations are standardized.
Tangolates (also known in Buenos Aires as Tango-Pilates and Pilates-Tango), involves body exercises that rely on the characteristics of Tango and Pilates dance. It uses a partner method rather than individual exercises and incorporates aerobic and cardio elements. Tangolates is usually performed on a specially designed device, on a carpet or on a Pilates device.
Tangolates was born in 2004 in a public hospital for patients suffering from motor disorders. In order to help patients in their workouts, each has been paired with an instructor in partnership exercises.
Tae Bo is a complete body fitness system that incorporates martial arts techniques such as kicks and punches, which became very popular in the 1990s. It was developed by the American practitioner Taekwondo Billy Blanks. These programs use martial arts movements at a rapid pace designed to promote fitness.
The name of Tae Bo is a coat rack of taekwondo and boxing. Moreover, it is the base of the back-name:
Sweating is a business networking while doing exercise and doing sweat. This way of working was born in the United States and began to be promoted in London in 2012, where gyms offered facilities and sessions of this kind. Journalist Lucy Kellaway tried to work with Wiggle President Andy Bond, who had a similar experience at Asda, playing five-a-side football with Archie Norman. Although there was little opportunity to speak during their fitness first round, they agreed that the shared experience of suffering was effective in establishing a connection.
Super Slow est une forme de renforcement de l’exercice physique (entraînement de résistance) popularisé par Ken Hutchins. Super Slow est un nom de marque Hutchins pour l’approche de formation de haute intensité préconisée par Arthur Jones. Il est basé sur des idées des années 1940 et 1960 appelées «contraction musculaire 10/10 avec mouvement mesuré» et implémentées à l’aide de machines Nautilus à poids fixe. Plus récemment, ces idées de «Time Under Load» ont connu une renaissance avec Body by Science de Dr Doug McGuff. Le Dr Vincent Bocchicchio a suggéré à Ken Hutchins la levée de 10 secondes, la vitesse de répétition de l’abaissement de 10 secondes. Bocchicchio a promu son idée originale comme étant impraticable sur des mouvements composés tels que la presse de jambe, la presse de coffre, la presse aérienne, et les baisses (tractions). Cependant, Hutchins a développé une technique de redressement pour inclure ces exercices importants au cours de la recherche sur l’ostéoporose financée par Nautilus à l’Université de Floride au début des années 1980. En outre, Hutchins a amélioré les courbes de résistance de l’équipement d’exercice et réduit leur friction pour améliorer encore l’effet de chargement sur les muscles. L’effet de cette approche a été encore amélioré par la pratique des exercices dans un environnement «idéal» où la température était fraîche, la ventilation était assurée et les distractions (audio, odeur, visuelle) étaient minimisées. Cet environnement clinique, associé à la vitesse lente et à la mécanique améliorée, n’avait jamais été géré auparavant. Les instructeurs SuperSlow sont également éduqués en mettant l’accent sur l’utilisation d’un langage précis dans l’exercice. Un protocole dix / dix a été utilisé dans les années 1940 par les culturistes et plus tard dans les années 1960 par les powerlifters comme un disjoncteur de plateau sous le nom MC / MM ou la contraction musculaire avec mouvement mesuré. Cette idée similaire a parfois été préconisée par Bob Hoffman de la York Barbell Company. Aucune de ces approches précédentes n’incorporait l’environnement idéal, la technique de redressement cohérente, la mécanique de l’équipement supérieur, ni l’adhésion au suivi de la fonction musculaire que SuperSlow englobait.
Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon (or muscle group) is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the elasticity felt by the muscle and to obtain a comfortable muscle tone. The result is a feeling of increased muscle control, flexibility and range of motion. Stretching is also used therapeutically to relieve cramps. In its most basic form, stretching is a natural and instinctive activity; it is done by humans and many other animals. This can be accompanied by yawning. Stretching often occurs instinctively after waking up, after long periods of inactivity or after leaving spaces and confined spaces. Increasing flexibility by stretching is one of the basic principles of fitness. It is common for athletes to stretch before (to warm up) and after the effort to try to reduce the risk of injury and improve performance, although these practices may not always be based on scientific evidence. ‘efficiency. Stretching can be dangerous if it is not done properly. There are many stretching techniques in general, but depending on which muscle group is stretched, some techniques may be ineffective or detrimental, leading to hypermobility, instability, or permanent damage to tendons, ligaments, and muscle fibers. . The physiological nature of stretching and the theories of the effect of various techniques are therefore subject to much research. Although static stretching (see the image on the right for an example) is part of some warm-up routines, a 2013 study indicated that it was weakening the muscles. For this reason, dynamic stretching is recommended before exercise instead of static stretching, while the latter helps to reduce muscle soreness afterwards.
Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles. When properly performed, strength training can provide significant functional benefits and improvement in overall health and well-being, including increased bone, muscle, tendon, and ligament strength and toughness, improved joint function, reduced potential for injury, increased bone density, increased metabolism, increased fitness and improved cardiac function. Training commonly uses the technique of progressively increasing the force output of the muscle through incremental weight increases and uses a variety of exercises and types of to target specific muscle groups. Strength training is primarily an anaerobic activity, although some proponents have adapted it to provide the benefits of aerobic exercise through circuit training. Strength training is typically associated with the production of lactate, which is a limiting factor of exercise performance. Regular endurance exercise leads to adaptations in skeletal muscle which can prevent lactate levels from rising during strength training. This is mediated via activation of PGC-1alpha which alter the LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) isoenzyme complex composition and decreases the activity of the lactate generating enzyme LDHA, while increasing the activity of the lactate metabolizing enzyme LDHB. Sports where strength training is central are bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, strongman, Highland games, shot put, discus throw, and javelin throw. Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen, notably tennis, American football, wrestling, track and field, rowing, lacrosse, basketball, pole dancing, hockey, professional wrestling, rugby union, rugby league, and soccer. Strength training for other sports and physical activities is becoming increasingly popular.
Street workout is a physical activity performed mostly in outdoor parks or public facilities. It originated in Ancient Greece, but became a popular movement in Russia, Eastern Europe, and the United States, especially in New York City, Baltimore’s urban neighborhoods and Myanmar. It has now spread all over the world. It is a combination of athletics, calisthenics, and sports. Street workout is a modern name for bodyweight workouts in outdoor parks. Street workout teams and organized competitions exist. A typical street workout routine often consists of physical exercises such as pull-ups, chin-ups, push-ups, dips, muscle-ups, sit-ups and squats. Street workout also involves some static (isometric) holds such as the human flag, front lever, back lever and planche. Street workout is divided in two main branches, the first one being strength training and the second dynamics. Strength training includes the isometric holds like: planche, front lever, back lever, etc. Also, strength training includes single arm pull ups, hefestos, muscle-ups and many others. Dynamics includes movements like 360s and its variations, switchblades, and an incredible variety of tricks developed by the athletes which are connected with other moves in order to create routines or sets. Some of the main benefits of street workout activities are: Different groups developed their own style by combining classical calisthenics with exercises from gymnastics, break dance, hip hop and freerunning, or to develop new movements themselves. These groups presented videos of the novel form of calisthenics on the internet and thus triggered a regular boom, especially in Eastern Europe. In 2011 the first World Championship for Calisthenics / Street Workout in Riga was held. The WSWCF is the World Street Workout and Calisthenics Federation. Since then, a world championship has been held every year. Among the best-known representatives of the modern calisthenics are the groups Barentaz, Baristi, Barstarzz, Bar-Barians and Street Workout Ukraine, and individuals such as Hannibal for King and Frank Medrano.
In strength training and fitness, the squat is a compound, full body exercise that trains primarily the muscles of the thighs, hips and buttocks, quadriceps femoris muscle (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and rectus femoris), hamstrings, as well as strengthening the bones, ligaments and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body. Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the legs as well as developing core strength. Individuals who are interested in strength training can utilize barbell squat in training and rehabilitation programs. If executed with proper form, the squat has the potential to develop knee stability. On the other hand, if done incorrectly, injuries to the knees and back can occur. Squats are typically used to hone back, thigh, and hip stability. Isometrically, the lower back, the upper back, the abdominals, the trunk muscles, the costal muscles, and the shoulders and arms are all essential to the exercise and thus are trained when squatting with the proper form. The squat is one of the three lifts in the strength sport of powerlifting, together with deadlifts and bench press. It is also considered a staple in many popular recreational exercise programs. When people discuss volume, the equation is sets performed times number of repetitions times external weight. Adding resistance to squats has been shown to affect the power and speed of the exercise. Though free-weight numbers fit nicely into the volume equation, adding resistance can complicate the equation and make volume less easy to calculate. More specifically, people have found that they can increase resistance while exercising by utilizing chains or rubber bands. One study discovered that the physical demand of exercises with resistance increases in a linear relationship with intensity. Differences in energy expenditure during squatting can be attributed to the various forms of movements, intensities, weights, repetitions, and types of items (Smith machine or barbell). Individuals who are interested in strength training can utilize barbell squat in training and rehabilitation programs. If executed with proper form, the squat has the potential to develop knee stability. On the other hand, if done incorrectly, injuries to the knees and back can occur. The parallel squat is one way to increase knee flexion while activating the quadriceps and hamstrings. In the standard squat, it is crucial to have the shin vertical to minimize stress on the knee. Variations in squats include various knee placements and squat depths. For example, knees can be placed in knees in, knees out, and knees over toes; whereas squats can be performed at roughly 20°, 50°, and 80°. The parallel squat is more preferred than the deep squat because the potential of injury on the cruciate and menisci ligaments is higher in the latter.
Point reduction refers to the mistake that fat can be targeted for reducing a specific area of the body by exercising specific muscles in the desired area, such as exercising the abdominal muscles in an effort to lose weight. weight in or around its middle section. Advertisers use this concept when advertising products related to the exercise. The scientific consensus among fitness experts and researchers is that stain reduction is a myth. Studies show largely that it is not possible to reduce fat in one area by exerting that part of the body alone. Instead, fat is lost from the entire body because of diet and regular exercise. Muscle growth in the abdominal area does not reduce fat in this region. Instead, being on a calorie deficit is recommended to reduce abdominal fat.
Periodization is the systematic planning of athletic or physical training. The aim is to reach the best possible performance in the most important competition of the year. It involves progressive cycling of various aspects of a training program during a specific period. Conditioning programs can use periodization to break up the training program into the off-season, preseason, inseason, and the postseason. Periodization divides the year round condition program into phases of training which focus on different goals.
Sports biomechanics is a quantitative based study and analysis of professional athletes and sports activities in general. It can simply be described as the physics of sports. In this subfield of biomechanics the laws of mechanics are applied in order to gain a greater understanding of athletic performance through mathematical modeling, computer simulation and measurement. Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of the methods of mechanics (the branch of physics involving analysis of the actions of forces). Within mechanics there are two sub-fields of study: statics, which is the study of systems that are in a state of constant motion either at rest (with no motion) or moving with a constant velocity; and dynamics, which is the study of systems in motion in which acceleration is present, which may involve kinematics (the study of the motion of bodies with respect to time, displacement, velocity, and speed of movement either in a straight line or in a rotary direction) and kinetics (the study of the forces associated with motion, including forces causing motion and forces resulting from motion). Sports biomechanists help people obtain optimal muscle recruitment and performance. A biomechanist also uses their knowledge to apply proper load barring techniques to preserve the body.
Sports Backers is a non-profit organization founded in 1991 and located in Richmond, Virginia at Sports Backers Stadium. The mission of the Sports Backers has expanded from its beginnings as a traditional sports commission for economic development to be focused on increasing physical activity to improve the health of area residents. The Sports Backers created Movement Makers, a national active living conference to encourage community health organizations that promote physical activity to have a place to gather and learn from each other. The annual event takes place in Richmond, Virginia and occurs at the same time as Dominion Riverrock. The Sports Backers own Dominion Riverrock, the largest outdoor sports and music festival in the country, the Ukrop’s Monument Avenue 10k, the 8th largest running race in the United States, and the Anthem Richmond Marathon, the 18th largest marathon in the country. The organization owns and produces 15 events. The organization also supports other organizations with more than 24 major sports tourism events in the Richmond region receiving annual support through marketing grants, operational assistance and loaning equipment. Sports Backers was named the Member of the Year by the National Association of Sports Commissions in 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2015. Jon Lugbill is the organization’s executive director and has been leading the organization since 1993. The Sports Backers training teams provide local residents a way to prepare for local road races. The Sports Backers Marathon, Half Marathon and 8k training teams prepared runners for the three races of the Anthem Richmond Marathon.
SpecTrek is an augmented reality ghost hunting game. The game won second prize in the “Android Developer Challenge II” lifestyle category. SpecTrek was designed to have the user work-out whilst playing the game, the tag line for the game is “protect the world, stay in shape”. There are three default games to play, short which lasts 15 minutes, medium which lasts for 30 minutes, and long which lasts for 60 minutes. SpecTrek projects ghosts at various locations on a Google map in either a predetermined search radius or a user defined search radius. To play the user must walk to these ghosts, if within range the user can scan and find out what kind of ghost is nearby as well as how far said ghost is from their current position. If the user is unable to reach a ghost, a horn may be blown which makes all nearby ghosts flee and possibly stop within reach of another accessible location. The user catches ghosts by tilting their phone to the “camera-position”. Through the camera the user can scan the ghosts, see the ghosts in augmented reality and of course catch the ghosts.
Specialized strength exercises are physical exercises used to develop the physical or psychological qualities that apply directly to a specific sport discipline. These exercises are designed and selected so that the movement and actions closely match those seen in a specific sport. Specialized exercises that promote psychological traits consist of movements and actions that require decisiveness, willpower, perseverance and confidence to achieve specific goals. They have similar concentration and psychological qualities as seen during competition. For example, execution of certain specialized exercises requires concentration to develop the neuromuscular pathway needed. A strength exercise which duplicates a particular portion of a skill requires ultimate concentration and perseverance to repeat exactly the same movement time after time to develop the necessary muscle feel. For the specialized exercises to have maximum positive transfer an athlete must be decisive in their movements and actions in order to develop the confidence to repeat the action during competition.
Skinny Bitch Fitness is a series of fitness DVDs from Rory Freedman and Kim Barnouin, authors of the book Skinny Bitch. The DVDs were released in 2008. Skinny Bitch Fitness: Boot Camp is the first in the series. The 50 minute main workout mixes fast-paced, non-stop cardio routines with some stretching and light weight work. The exercises include punches, lunges, squats, twists and jumping jacks and shuffle drills. Also included on the DVD are five 5 minute workouts, called “five-by-fives”, followed by a yoga routine. Skinny Bitch Fitness: Body includes four 15-minute segments working a different body part. Each workout includes a short warm-up, and a few stretches following the workout. The segment for abs begins with standing step touches and twists to warm up, followed by oblique crunches and active triangle pose moves, along with lunges with knee ups that help improve balance. The floor work is more challenging, with crunches for the upper and lower abs, some oblique work, and planks. The segment for abs is followed by the section for legs, consisting of a series of leg moves from the floor. The segment for arms consists of punches, speed-bag moves and throwing elbows. The workout for buttocks features squats, and squats jumping in and out, some box-step moves, a Brazilian martial arts segment, one-legged deadlifts and lunges. At the end is a segment for meditation, lasting five minutes. Skinny Bitch Fitness: Booty Bounce is a dance-routine with several options, building to a cardio workout that targets the rear and the core. The routines include a comprehensive warmup, and then a choice of an ’80s-based aerobics routine or a more contemporary hip-hop workout, which can be combined or done separately. Extras include interviews and outtakes with Friedman and Barnouin and an interview with the mastermind behind the routines, fitness trainer Patrick Goudeau.
Sit-up (or straightening) is a commonly used abdominal endurance training exercise to strengthen and tone the abdominal muscles. It is similar to a crunch (the crunches target the rectus abdominus and also work the external and internal obliques), but the sit-ups have a greater range of motion and condition the extra muscles.
It starts with lying on the floor with your back, usually with your arms on your chest or your hands behind your head and your knees bent to try to reduce the stress on your back and spine muscles, then raise the vertebrae upper and lower. the ground until everything above the buttocks does not touch the ground. Some argue that situps can be dangerous because of high compression lumbar load and can be replaced by crunch in exercise programs. Bodybuilding exercises such as sit-ups and push-ups do not cause fat reduction. Winning a “six pack” requires both training for abdominal muscle hypertrophy and fat loss on the abdomen, which can only be done by losing body fat as a whole.
Sit and Be Fit is a TV exercise program for the elderly and those in need of a gentle, slow motion. The program is broadcast throughout the United States, distributed to public television channels (but not by the Public Broadcasting Service). Sit and Be Fit programs are also available on DVD. The series was created in 1987 by Mary Ann Wilson, a registered nurse specializing in the field of post-polio rehabilitation and geriatrics. Wilson acknowledged the need for functional exercise, especially for moderately active seniors or those who are dealing with chronic health issues or who need rehabilitation following stroke, heart attack or stroke. other injuries. Sit & Be Fit is committed to improving the quality of life of older people and physically challenged people through safe and effective exercises that are available on TV, videos, personal appearances, courses, seminars, books and the Internet: The program actively promotes fitness, healing and independence, and is an effective resource for professionals in aging and fitness.
Side stitch (also called side sore, side cramp, side cramp, side sticker, or simply a stitch) is an intense throbbing pain under the lower edge of the rib cage that occurs during exercise . It is also called exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Some people think that this abdominal pain can be caused by the internal organs (such as the liver and stomach) coming down on the diaphragm, but this theory is incompatible with its swimming frequency, which involves practically no downward force on these organs. If the pain is present only during exercise and completely absent at rest, in a healthy person, it does not require investigation.
Shuai Shou Gong () is a hand swing exercise launched by Taiwan Qigong (气功) Standing with both legs apart about the same width as the shoulder, Shuai Shou Gong involves moving both arms in parallel. the body until they are at the same height as the shoulder, then swinging the arms with a little effort until both arms are behind the body.On the fifth lap, the knee must lower slightly and return quickly – once the arms are swinging towards the back of the body and another on the back towards the front of the body.This exercise should be performed 3 times a day and last at least 10 minutes each time .It will help improve blood circulation and start the healing process It is recommended to avoid drinking cold water immediately after exercise Shuai Shou Gong is supposed to cure many ailments, including cancer, with Anecdotal cases reported in Taiwan, but there is a lack of urine r examined the evidence to support these claims, which are probably attributable to the placebo effect.
The glove is a form of physical exercise based on the use of a hammer that has been wrapped in a sweater or otherwise padded. The shovel is used for shoveling, butter churning and wood cutting, among others. These natural movements are meant to be part of a functional training program. Reinhard Engels, the inventor of Shovelgloving, advocates Shovelgloving for 14 minutes a day. He explains the 14-minute rationale as follows: “It’s a minute less than the smallest chronologically significant time unit: no calendar has a finer granularity than 15 minutes, no one Never have a meeting that starts at 5, 10 or 14 A few minutes before or after the hour, you have no excuse not to do it: in time, it does not even register. However, he recommends beginners to start with less than 14 minutes.
Shazzy Fitness is a series of fitness DVDs focused on Christian dance. This faith-based start-up business was created by Kristy McCarley in 2012. Shazzy Fitness is an aerobic dance and workout program. The music of the training is mainly Christian hip-hop and Christian rock. Their fitness program is mainly distributed by DVD. However, they offer content via online video sites such as YouTube and Vimeo. Early level workouts are designed to form muscle groups and offer a combination of isometric and isometric dance exercises as well as cooling. The intermediate DVD offers the same features, but is geared toward dance enthusiasts by offering more advanced dance moves.
Sexercise (it is referred to by some as erotic) is a physical exercise done in preparation for sexual activity and designed to tone, build and strengthen muscles. Sexercises are often performed as part of a sexual dieting lifestyle, which seeks to maximize the health benefits of regular sexual activity. Exercise is known to improve and accelerate the flow of oxygenated blood, in higher and constant amounts, as well as other beneficial chemical compounds, to the genitals, which is important for fertility and important during intercourse.
Scaption is the abbreviation of Scapular Plane Elevation. The term does not refer to whether the altitude is with an internal, external or neutral rotation. The term is widely used in sports training, occupational therapy and physiotherapy. The term was published for the first time in 1991 in a publication of the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The origins of the word are rather practical: Marilyn Pink was invited to give a lecture at the Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons on a research project she was conducting. Due to a strict synchronization of the presentation time, she was forced to shorten a sentence that appeared often in her lecture: “Scapular Plane Elevation”. Her colleague and friend, Jacquelin Perry, suggested that she simply convert the sentence into “scaption”, thus coining the word.
Russian torsion is a type of exercise that is used to work the abdominal muscles by performing a twisting motion on the abdomen. Exercise is considered by those who practice it to create explosiveness in the upper torso, which can help in sports such as tennis, swimming, baseball, athletics, hockey, golf, lacrosse or boxing.
To perform the Russian twist, first, one should sit on the floor with the knees bent as in a “sitting” position. The feet should be held together and slightly above the ground or placed under a stable surface. The torso should be kept straight with the back maintained off the ground at a 45 degree angle. The arms should be held together away from the body in a straight manner and the hands should remain tied together as a ball or be able to support a weight to increase the difficulty. Next, the arms should be swung from one side to the other in a twisting motion, with each swing to one side counting as a repetition. The slower moves the arms from one side to the other, the more difficult the exercise becomes, working the abdomen much better. When you move your arms during exercise, it is crucial not to stop between repetitions, otherwise you will lose the effect of working the abdomen. Constant inspiration and breathing during exercise is important because you do not need to hold your breath. There are also other variations of this exercise, such as using a stability ball or with a standing barbell.
A school bus is a group of schoolchildren supervised by one or more adults, pedaling along a determined route, picking up children at “bus stops” along the way until they arrive all at school. Riding school buses are similar to walking bus programs. Like a traditional bus, school buses (also known as RSBs) have a fixed route with designated “bus stops” and “pickup hours” in which they pick up children. Ideally, the school bus will include at least one adult “driver”, who leads the group, and an adult “driver” who oversees the end of the group. Mounted school bus programs have been developed in a number of local councils in Victoria, Australia, including City of Moreland and Shire of East Gippsland Horse school bus programs offer a number of benefits:
Rebound exercise (or “Rebounding”) is a type of elastically leveraged low-impact exercise usually performed on a device known as a rebounder—sometimes called a “mini-trampoline”—which is directly descended from regular sports or athletic trampolines. Some of the basic movements and actions of rebound exercise include bouncing in place (sometimes also called “jumping” or the Basic Bounce ), jumping jacks, twists, side-to-side motions, running in place, dance movements, and a wide variety of other movements, patterned or un-patterned, with or without the use of hand-weights or other accessories. A wide variety of physical and other benefits are claimed for rebound exercise, which experienced a tremendous upsurge of interest in the mid-1980s. A rebound exercise program can focus on aerobics, strength, or just simple easy non-jarring movement, depending on the needs of the person bouncing. Typically round, rebounders are much smaller (at about 3 to 4 feet in total diameter) than regular trampolines, and they are not designed for stunts. Other equipment for one or two feet, such as Kangoo Jumps or BOSU balls, can provide a type of rebound exercise experience, and regular, full-size, sports or athletic trampolines can also be used to perform the various movements, routines, programs, and styles that characterize rebound exercise. Rebounders are predominantly used solo in personal homes, but are also found in some health clubs, and physical rehabilitation centers.
Ready for the work and defense of the USSR (Gotov k trudu i oborone SSSR), abbreviated GTO () was the training program in physical culture of the Union, introduced in the USSR on March 11, 1931 on the initiative of the Komsomol. It was a complement to the unified sports classification system of the USSR. While the latter provided only requirements for the Soviet physical education system, GTO was a program for all Soviet citizens of almost all ages. In 1976, 220 million people received GTO badges, while in 1986 the tests were approved by 33.9 million people.
Initially, the GTO had a level with three age groups. To obtain the GTO badge, an individual had to pass 21 tests, 13 of which had concrete standards. Sports in the country were only beginning to develop; there were a few fitness collectives by companies and organizations, which could organize physical training, and the GTO offered the unique opportunity to involve people in sports activities, hence the variety of tests. On December 7th, 1932, the second level was introduced for the same three age groups. This has been done to stimulate the improvement of the skills of those who have passed the first level. The second level consisted of 24 tests, 19 of which had concrete standards. Each test result could be one of two: “passed” and “unsuccessful”. The next change followed in 1934, when the third level was introduced, with two age groups: for 13-14 and 15-16 year olds. This level had a distinct name – “Be prepared for the work and defense of the USSR” (), abbreviated as “BGTO”. This defined the structure of the GTO for many years: it had the stages “BGTO”, “GTO 1st level” and “GTO 2nd level” until 1972. After setting up the structure of the GTO program, the The following revisions have been made to the test system, which is applicable for assessing the physical conditions of different age groups of the population; improvements in standards requirements; specifying the age limits of the levels. In 1939, the tense international situation led to the inclusion of tests, necessary to prepare young people to serve in the Red Army, and to prepare the whole population for the eventual war. Disciplines such as “crawling”, “walking fast feet”, “throwing a pile of grenades”, “climbing”, “carrying a box of cartridges”, various martial arts were introduced. Most of them were removed after the Second World War. Only “throw a grenade” and “50 m small arms shot” (men only) remained.
The Ratzeburg Test was a test used to gauge the suitability of individuals for international competitive junior rowing prior to the use of indoor rowing machines for selection. The test was originally developed by the “Academy of Ratzeburg rowing”, Germany in 1971. It was employed by the Great Britain Junior rowing team selectors in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
Each element of the test was supervised by one of the GB junior rowing selection team. All parts of the test were completed in succession during an afternoon. The sequence was a timed 3,000 metre run on an athletic track, then a weight lifting test, followed by a gym circuit test. The weight lifting test consisted of successive power clean lifts at increasing weight until failure. At a given weight, recorded in pounds, a maximum of 3 failures were allowed. The circuit test counted the number of repetitions performed in one minute for each of the followin exercises:
In sports and in particular stress tests, the perceived effort assessment (EPR), measured by the Borg scale of the perceived effort scale (EPR scale), is a frequently used quantitative measure of perceived exertion during physical activity. In medicine, this serves to document the patient’s effort during a test, and athletic trainers use the scale to assess the intensity of training and competition. The original scale introduced by Gunnar Borg evaluated the effort on a scale of 6-20. Borg then built a category scale (C) (R), the Borg CR10 scale. This is particularly used in the clinical diagnosis of shortness of breath and dyspnea, chest pain, angina and musculoskeletal pain. The CR-10 is best when there is a dominant sensation from either a specific area of the body, such as muscle pain, quadriceps pain or fatigue, or lung responses. The Borg scale can be compared to other linear scales such as the Likert scale or a visual analogue scale. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the results are overall very similar, although the Borg can surpass the Likert scale in some cases.
Refers to the popular warm-up gymnastics in mainland China, Taiwan and Japan.
In Japan, radio gymnastics is broadcast on music on NHK public radio early in the morning. Rajio Taisō was introduced in Japan in 1928 as a commemoration of the coronation of Emperor Hirohito. The idea for radio broadcasts came from the United States, where, in the 1920s, Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. sponsored 15 minutes of radio gymnastics in major cities in the United States. Employees of the Japan Post Insurance Division brought samples of United States exercises to Japan. The exercises were widely used to improve the health of Japanese soldiers both at home and abroad during the 1930s and 1940s. The exercises were presented to several other Pacific nations including Taiwan, Hong Kong and Indonesia during the period of colonization of Japan. After the defeat of Japan in 1945, the occupying powers banned the broadcasts because they were too militaristic. After several rewrites to the exercise routine, it was reintroduced by NHK radio in 1951 with the support of the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health, the Japan Gymnastic Association and the Japan Recreation Association.
Progressive overload is the progressive increase in stress placed on the body during physical training. It was developed by Thomas Delorme, MD, while rehabilitating soldiers after the Second World War. The technique is recognized as a fundamental principle for success in various forms of bodybuilding programs, including physical training, weightlifting, intensive training and physiotherapy programs.
Prehab, or prehab, a form of bodybuilding, aims to prevent injuries before the actual event. Since rotator cuff and elbow injuries, among others, are common among athletes engaged in a wide variety of sports, training the muscles around these vulnerable joints can prevent injury from wear and tear. a repeated effort. Prehab can be applied to people waiting for orthopedic surgery. The intention is that the better they are, the faster they recover from surgery. The massage and strengthening exercises are patient-specific so that even those with end-stage arthritis (bone-in-bone) can exercise safely and improve their outcomes. The research data is still insufficient, but suggests that they improve quadriceps strength before knee surgery and therefore support the knee joint after surgery. In 2013, a pilot preadaptation study in colorectal surgery showed that it improved postoperative functional recovery, measured in terms of walking ability at 4 weeks and 8 weeks (although hospitalization time and postoperative complications are similar) , is also contemplated for use in certain cardiovascular interventions, and may also be of some benefit for the prevention of pulmonary complications, such as pulmonary atelactase, in general surgery.
Prancercise is a holistic fitness method based on “a springy, rhythmic way of moving forward, similar to a horse’s gait and ideally induced by elation” created by Joanna Rohrback. It has been compared to the low-impact aerobics that were popularized by 1980s workout videos. Many parodies were created in reaction to Rohrback’s original video, which themselves have accumulated hundreds of thousands of views.
Prāṇāyāma () is a Sanskrit word translated alternatively by “extension of prāṇa (breath or life force)” or “breath control”. The word is composed of two Sanskrit words: prana meaning the life force (noted in particular the breath), and either ayama (restricting or controlling the prana, involving a set of breathing techniques where the breath is intentionally modified to produce specific results) or the negative form ayāma, meaning to extend or draw (as in the prolongation of the life force). It is a yogic discipline with origins in ancient India.
Prāṇāyāma (Devanagari 🙂 is a Sanskrit compound. VS Apte provides fourteen different meanings for the word prāṇa (Devanagari:,), including these: Monier-Williams defines the compound as “(m, also pl.) N. of the three” breathing exercises “performed during ( See, This technical definition refers to a particular system of breath control with three processes, as explained by Bhattacharyya: ‘(to breathe in),’ (to hold it), and (to discharge it). In addition to this three-stage model, Macdonell gives the etymology as + yyāma and defines it as “suspension of breath (sts pl.)”. Apte’s definition of “drifts from +” and provides several variants of prāṇāyāma The first three meanings have to do with “length”, “expansion, extension” and “stretching, extension”, but in the specific case of use in the compound “it defines” as meaning “to retain, to control, to stop.” An alternative etymology for the compound is quoted by Ramamurti Mishra, who says that:
Pole dance combines dance and acrobatics centered on a vertical pole. This performance art form takes place not only in gentleman’s clubs as erotic dance, but has also recently gained popularity as a mainstream form of fitness, practiced by many enthusiasts in gyms and in dedicated dance studios. Amateur and professional pole dancing competitions are held in countries around the world. Pole dance requires significant muscular endurance and coordination as well as sensuality, in exotic dancing. Today, pole performances by exotic dancers range from basic spins and striptease in more intimate clubs, to athletic moves such as climbs and body inversions in “stage heavy” clubs of Las Vegas and Miami. Dancer Remy Redd at the King of Diamonds is famous for flipping herself upside down into a split and hanging from the ceiling. Pole dance requires significant strength and flexibility. Upper body and core strength are required to attain proficiency, proper instruction, and rigorous training is necessary. Since the mid 2000s, promoters of pole dance fitness competitions have been trying to change peoples’ perception of pole dance to include pole fitness as a non-sexual form of dance and acrobatics, and are trying to move pole into the Olympics as pole sports. Pole dance is regarded as a form of exercise which can be used as both an aerobic and anaerobic workout. Recognized schools and qualifications are now commonplace.
Plyometrics, also known as jump training or plyos, are exercises in which muscles exert maximum force in short intervals of time, with the goal of increasing power (speed-strength). This training focuses on learning to move from a muscle extension to a contraction in a rapid or “explosive” manner, such as in specialized repeated jumping. Plyometrics are primarily used by athletes, especially martial artists, sprinters and high jumpers, to improve performance, and are used in the fitness field to a much lesser degree.
Plogging is a combination of jogging and garbage collection (Swedish: plocka upp). It started as an organized activity in Sweden around 2016 and spread to other countries in 2018, following growing concerns about plastic pollution. As a workout, it allows the body’s movements to be varied by adding flexions, squats and stretches to the main action of the race. Author David Sedaris combines garbage collection and exercise in the Parham, Coldwaltham and Storrington districts of West Sussex, taking up to 60,000 steps per day to search for local waste. He was so effective in keeping his neighborhood clean that the local authority named a scrap vehicle in his honor. West Sussex Lord Lieutenant Susan Pyper said, “The sign on this truck is a very fitting way to say a big thank you to David for his tireless efforts … he is a true local hero.” Erik Ahlström began to get stuck in the Swedish capital, Stockholm, when he moved to the Åre ski resort. He created the Plogga site to organize the activity and encourage volunteers. The Keep America Beautiful organization is now promoting plogging to its affiliates and found that some exercises already combined with cleansing, such as the Trashercize program in Tennessee.
Pilates (;) is a fitness system developed in the early 20th century by Joseph Pilates, after which he was named. Pilates called his method “Contrology”. It is practiced all over the world and especially in Western countries like Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom. In 2005, 11 million people practiced the discipline regularly and 14,000 instructors in the United States. There is only limited evidence to support the use of Pilates to relieve low back pain, or improve balance in the elderly. Data from studies show that while Pilates improves balance, there is little data on the impact of this method on falls among older adults. Pilates has not been shown to be an effective treatment for any medical condition. There is evidence that regular Pilates sessions can help muscle conditioning in healthy adults, compared to not exercising.
Physique 57 is a fitness company founded in 2006 and based in New York. The company offers bar classes through its exercise studios in New York, Los Angeles, Dubai and Bangkok and offers its own line of fitness and training DVDs online on its website and from retailers such as Lululemon Athletica , Lorna Jane Active and Norma Kamali. The company’s first book, The Physics 57 Solution, was released in 2012. In 2010, Physique 57 was named number 377 in the list of America’s 500 fastest growing companies. .
There are nine places of Physics 57. The Flagship Studio is located in New York at 24 W 57th Street. The second location of New York City is at 161 Avenue of the Americas and the third location in New York is at 2109 Broadway on the Upper West Side. The fourth studio is located in Bridgehampton at 264 Butter Lane Barn. The Beverly Hills, California studio opened in June 2010 and is located at 320 North Cañon Drive. Physique 57 opened a studio in Dubai Citywalk in summer 2013 and another in 2015 at Al Thanya Mall. In 2014, Physique 57 opened its second international studio in Bangkok in the Erawan Bangkok building. In January 2016, Physique 57 opened its fourth New York location in the Financial District at 55 Broadway.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function. Physical therapy is used to improve a patient’s quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis and physical intervention. It is performed by physical therapists (known as physiotherapists in many countries). In addition to clinical practice, other activities encompassed in the physical therapy profession include research, education, consultation and administration. Physical therapy services may be provided as primary care treatment or alongside, or in conjunction with, other medical services.
Physical force is the measure of the effort exerted by an animal on physical objects. Increasing physical strength is the goal of strength training.
The physical strength of an individual is determined by two factors; the cross-section of muscle fibers recruited to generate strength and intensity of recruitment. Individuals with a high proportion of Type I slow-twitch muscle fibers will be relatively weaker than a similar individual with a high proportion of Type II fast-twitch fibers, but will have a greater inherent capacity for physical endurance. The genetic inheritance of the type of muscle fibers defines the extreme limits of physical strength (with the exception of the use of stimulating agents such as testosterone), although the unique position in this envelope is determined by the ‘training. The individual muscle fiber ratios can be determined by a muscle biopsy. Other considerations are the ability to recruit muscle fibers for a particular activity, the angles of the joints and the length of each limb. For a given cross section, shorter limbs are able to lift more weight. The ability to gain muscle also varies from person to person, depending primarily on the genes that dictate secreted hormone levels, but also on gender, age, health, and nutrients adequate. A maximum repeat test is the most accurate way to determine maximum muscle strength.
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition, moderate-vigorous physical exercise, and sufficient rest. Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.
Physical culture is a health and strength training movement that originated during the 19th century in Germany, England, and the United States.
The physical culture movement in the United States of the 19th century owed its origins to several cultural trends. In the United States, German immigrants after 1848 introduced a physical culture system based on gymnastics that became popular especially in colleges. Many local Turner clubs introduced physical education (PE) in the form of ‘German gymnastics’ into American colleges and public schools. The perception of Turner as ‘non-American’ prevented the ‘German system’ from becoming the dominating form. They were especially important mainly in the cities with a large German-American population, but their influence slowly spread. By the late 19th century reformers worried that sedentary white collar workers were suffering from various “diseases of affluence” that were partially attributed to their increasingly sedentary lifestyles. In consequence, numerous exercise systems were developed, typically drawing from a range of traditional folk games, dances and sports, military training and medical calisthenics. Physical culture programs were promoted through the education system, particularly at military academies, as well as via public and private gymnasiums. Industry began the production of various items of exercise-oriented sports equipment. During the early and mid-19th century, these printed works and items of apparatus generally addressed exercise as a form of remedial physical therapy. Certain items of equipment and types of exercise were common to several different physical culture systems, including exercises with Indian clubs, medicine balls, wooden or iron wands and dumbbells. Combat sports such as fencing, boxing, savate and wrestling were also widely practiced in physical culture schools, and were touted as forms of physical culture in their own right. The Muscular Christianity movement of the late 19th century advocated a fusion of energetic Christian activism and rigorous physical culture training.
The physical activity level (PAL) is a way to express a person’s daily physical activity as a number, and is used to estimate a person’s total energy expenditure. In combination with the basal metabolic rate, it can be used to compute the amount of food energy a person needs to consume in order to maintain a particular lifestyle.
The pelvic lift (also known as pelvic tilt) is an exercise designed to strengthen the lower back, gluteal muscles, lower abdominal muscles and maintain hip muscle balance. It does not require weight, although they can be placed on the stomach.
There are four steps in the exercise.
The Paula Method is a proposed alternative to Kegel exercises. The idea is that by strengthening your sphincter muscles (eye muscle: orbicularis oculi and mouth muscle: orbicularis oris), the contractions would also strengthen the sphincter muscles in the pelvic floor. Evidence to support its use is lacking.
P90X, or Power 90 Extreme, is a home-based exercise plan created by Tony Horton. Developed as a successor to the “Power 90” program, it is designed to last 90 days and consists of a training program that uses cross training and periodization, combined with a nutrition and dietary supplement plan.
The system was developed by Tony Horton, Carl Daikeler, CEO of Beachbody, Steve Edwards, Beachbody Fitness Consultant, Carrie Wyatt, Nutritionist, Ned Farr, Artistic Director, and Mason Bendewald, Director of Training Video. In 2002, Daikeler asked Horton to create a fitness program for people already physically fit. Daikeler then hired Ned Farr to document the process of developing the new program. Horton consulted with a variety of fitness experts and experimented with several disciplines to develop a training program with three different calendars: Lean, for people looking to lose weight and fat; Classic, for people who want to get both muscle mass and physical stamina; and Doubles, which was the classic schedule with an extra cardio workout each day, for athletes to get in shape before a sports season begins. Farr’s documentary was used for the infomercials used to sell the program, using raw images provided by P90X graduates. The infomercial “P90X: The Proof” won a Telly award in 2009 and the infomercial “P90X: The Answer” won a Moxie award in 2010. In 2010, sales of P90X dropped dramatically, but still accounted for half of the $ 430 million in Beachbody revenue. 2010 and has sold more than 4.2 million copies to date.
The outdoor gym is a gym built outside in a public park, with all-weather construction of its exercise machines somewhat modeled on playground equipment. It’s similar to the proliferation of health care courses in the 1960s and 1970s, which continues to be created, particularly in the United States and Europe. In some cases, the trails used for fitness are called outdoor gyms. Outdoor gyms were used in China as a national fitness campaign prior to the 2008 Summer Olympics. Government has opened outdoor gyms across China Currently, one-third of the sports lottery is dedicated financing this concept. In China, they have a survey similar to the Active People Survey. Levels of participation in physical activity have been steadily increasing since the outdoor gym concept was introduced in China. Outdoor gyms are also beginning to develop in New Delhi, India, where traditional gyms are unpopular. In 2012, the New Delhi City Council (NDMC) installed 40 ensembles around the region, the surrounding municipalities followed suit.
Open Chain Exercises (OKC) are exercises performed when the hand or foot is free to move. The opposite of OKC are closed kinetic chain exercises (CKC). Both are effective for reinforcement and rehabilitation goals. Closed-chain exercises tend to offer more “functional” athletic benefits because of their ability to recruit more muscle groups and require additional skeletal stabilization.
The November Project is a free exercise group, open to the public, founded in Boston, Massachusetts, in 2011. The name “November Project” comes from the Google Doc that the founders shared to track their progress in November 2011. During the sessions occur all year, the name remained.
Founded by Brogan Graham and Bojan Mandaric, both former members of the Northeastern crew, the group was created to continue training during the cold winter months of Boston. The pair made a pact to continue meeting at 6:30 every day during the month of November. Since this original promise, the group now has hundreds of members who train several times a week in several cities in the United States, Canada, Asia and Europe. Membership is open and free for the general public. The group employs several recruitment strategies, including a blog, a Facebook page and a Twitter account, in addition to various media including Runner’s World, Boston Globe and NPR. The group has selected specific locations in the city of Boston (as well as immediate communities such as Brookline and Cambridge) for its workouts. Standard locations include Harvard Stadium for its stairs, and Corey Hill Outlook Park (also known as “Summit Ave.”) at Brookline. In December 2017, the group is located in 45 cities around the world.
Nordic walking is a form of total body walk that can be appreciated by both non-athletes as a physical activity that promotes health and by athletes as a sport. The activity is carried out with specially designed walking sticks similar to ski poles.
Nordic walking (originally Finnish sauvakävely) is fitness walking with specially designed poles. While hikers, hikers and skiers used the basic concept for decades, Nordic Walking was first formally defined with the publication of “Hiihdon lajiosa” by Mauri Repo in 1979. (.) The concept of Nordic Walking has was developed on the basis of an off-season ski training activity using monoblock ski poles. For decades, hikers and hikers have used their one-piece ski poles long before trekking and Nordic walking poles have come on the scene. Snowless snow skiers have always used and still use their one-piece ski poles for walking and ski jumping. The first specially designed and marketed sticks for fitness walkers were produced by Exerstrider of the United States in 1988. The Walker Nordic sticks were produced and marketed by Exel in 1997. Exel invented and popularized the term “Nordic Walking” in 1999.
Une bonne posture fait référence aux «trois courbes naturelles [qui] sont présentes dans une colonne vertébrale saine». . Il est également appelé colonne vertébrale neutre. En regardant directement l’avant ou l’arrière du corps, les 33 vertèbres de la colonne vertébrale doivent apparaître complètement verticales. Vue de côté, la région cervicale (cou) de la colonne vertébrale (C1-C7) est courbée vers l’intérieur, la région thoracique (haut du dos) (T1-T12) se plie vers l’extérieur et la région lombaire (bas du dos) (L1-L5 ) se penche vers l’intérieur. Le sacrum (zone du coccyx) (S1-S5 fusionné) et le coccyx (en moyenne 4 fusionnés) reposent entre les os pelviens. Un bassin neutre indique que les épines iliaques supérieures antérieures et la symphyse pubienne tombent dans la même ligne verticale.
Netpulse is an American fitness technology company, and a branded mobile application provider for health clubs.
Netpulse was founded in 2001 by Thomas Proulx, co-founder of technology giant Intuit, and Bryan Arp. Tom and Bryan’s vision for the company was to install a screen in front of each treadmill and exercise bike to capture the untapped advertising potential in the gyms. Netpulse has quickly become the leader in connected cardiovascular equipment, and thousands of facilities around the world use Netpulse software in treadmills, exercise bikes and elliptical trainers.
Netpulse received $ 40 million in funding from August Capital, Nokia Growth Ventures, and DFJ Frontier. The company’s board of directors includes Mark Mastrov (founder of 24 Hour Fitness) and David Marquardt, Microsoft’s leading institutional investor, who has been a board member of Microsoft for 33 years.
The National Healthy Schools Programme (NHSP) was a joint Department of Health and Department for Children, Schools and Families project intended to improve health, raise pupil achievement, improve social inclusion and encourage closer working between health and education providers in the United Kingdom. The Programme started in 1998 and formed part of the strategy described in the Department for Children, Schools and Families’ Children’s Plan (DCSF 2007) and in the Department of Health’s Healthy Weight, healthy Lives (DH 2008). It had four themes, each with its own criteria:
The multi-stage fitness test, also known as the PACER (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) test or the beep test, is a running test used to estimate an athlete’s aerobic capacity (VO 2 max). In the test, athletes must run from one line to another before a timed beep. Athletes must continue running back and forth, each time reaching the line before the next beep. Once one can no longer run, the test is over and the number of laps is recorded. As the test continues, the time between beeps gets shorter. The test is used by sporting organizations around the world along with schools, militaries, and others interested in gauging one’s cardiovascular endurance, an important component of overall of physical fitness. The test was created in 1982 by Luc Léger, University of Montreal and published in 1983 with a starting speed of 8 km/h and stages of 2 min duration. It was re-published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology in 1988 in its present form with a starting speed of 8.5 km/h and 1 min stages under the name “The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness”. Result equivalences between slightly modified versions are well explained by Tomkinson et al. in 2003. In the United States, the Presidents Council on Youth Fitness now recommends schools use the PACER test instead of distance based runs like the mile (1600 m). Reasons for this include…
VO 2 max = (Velocity (km/h) × 6.65 – 35.8) × 0.95 + 0.182 [METs] = VO 2 max / 3.5
The test involves running continuously between two points that are 20 m apart from side to side (or 15 m in small gyms). The runs are synchronized with a pre-recorded audio tape, CD or computer software, which plays beeps at set intervals. As the test proceeds, the interval between each successive beep decreases, forcing the athletes to increase their speed over the course of the test until it is impossible to keep in sync with the recording (or, on extremely rare occasions, until the athlete completes the test). Many people who test people using the multi-stage fitness test allow one level to beep before the person makes the line, but some middle and grade schools allow two missed laps. If the person being tested does not make the next interval, the most recent level they completed is their final score. The recording is typically structured into 25 ‘levels’, each lasting around 62 s. Usually, the interval of beeps is calculated as requiring a speed at the start of 8.5 km/h (see format table), increasing by 0.5 km/h with each level thereafter. The progression from one level to the next is signaled by 3 quick beeps. The highest level attained before failing to keep up is recorded as the score for that test.
Movement assessment is the practice of analyzing movement performance during functional tasks to determine the kinematics of individual joints and their effect on the kinetic chain. Three-dimensional or two-dimensional analysis of biomechanics involved in sports tasks can help prevent injuries and improve athletic performance. Identifying abnormal movement mechanics allows physiotherapists to prescribe more accurate corrective exercise programs to prevent injuries and improve rehabilitation and exercise progression after an injury, and help determine whether to return to work. sport.
LESS is a valid and reliable tool for the biomechanical evaluation of the jump landing technique. LESS involves the scoring of 22 biomechanical criteria for the lower extremity and the trunk, the results being associated with the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patellofemoral lesion. The LESS score is divided into the following categories: excellent (0-3); good (4-5); moderate (6-7); and poor (> 7). The identification of biomechanical anomalies in the landing technique, the effect of fatigue and the differences between the sexes allow more precise clinical interventions to reduce the risk of injury.
The metabolic window (also called anabolic window) is a term used in strength training to describe the 30-minute period (give or take, depending on the individual) after the exercise during which nutrition can move the body of a catabolic to anabolic state. a. More specifically, it is during this period that the consumption of proteins and carbohydrates can contribute to the increase of the muscular mass. Some theorists believe that the metabolic window begins to close in the minutes of the end of a workout. The same nutrients taken two hours later result in significantly reduced protein synthesis and muscle glycogen storage. Further research is needed on the effects of food synchrony and exercise, but the methodology should be considered in these experiments. Currently, there is not enough scientific evidence to support the metabolic window theory.
Shopping in the mall is a form of exercise in which people walk or jog in the long corridors of shopping centers. Many shopping malls open early so people can walk; stores and other such facilities generally do not open at this time, although vending machine concessions are available. Many choose to walk to the mall because the indoor climate is comfortable and there is easy access to amenities, such as benches, toilets and water fountains. Clean, level surfaces also provide a safe walking environment. Walking in a shopping center is done individually, in a group or as part of a walking program organized in a shopping center. Mall walking in the United States is particularly popular among the elderly. Many walkers in the center cite the camaraderie of group walking.
Many shopping centers actively promote walking in shopping centers with clubs and special benefits. It is considered by mall owners as beneficial for several reasons:
Mad Dogg Athletics, Inc. markets bicycles, men’s and women’s apparel, shoes, accessories, music, videos, heart rate monitors, and functional training equipment online. It also provides training services.
Mad Dogg Athletics is based in Venice, California and was founded by Johnny G and John Baudhuin in 1994.
Long-term complications of standing are conditions that can occur after a prolonged period of standing or standing, including standing, walking or running. Most complications come from prolonged standing (more than 60% of a day’s work) which is repeated several times a week. There are many different jobs that require prolonged standing. These included: “retail staff, baristas, bartenders, assembly line workers, security personnel, engineers, catering staff, library assistants, hairdressers and laboratory technicians”. Cornell University has calculated that “standing up requires about 20% more energy than sitting”.
There are no exact measures of the prevalence of complications. However, European studies report that between one-third and one-half of workers spend at least four hours per shift (for an average eight-hour day) standing or walking. According to an estimate from the United Kingdom, more than 11 million people would remain without rest for a long time.
Good posture is often called “neutral spine”; Freeing is a bad posture or “non-neutral spine” Sagging is often described as poor posture, movement or rigidity of the spine, particularly the cervical and thoracic regions, compared to other parts of the body.
A busy walk is a relatively fast walk over the distance carrying a load. It is both a joint military exercise and a civilian activity. A crowded march is known as a forced march in the US Army. Less formally, it is a hoarse march in the Canadian Armed Forces and the US Army, a slogan in the slang of the British Army, a yelp in the slang of the Royal Marines and the slang of the Australian army. As a civilian exercise, charged walking falls into the category of “hikes”, although this includes activities that are not strong enough to be compared to busy marches. Civilian activities similar to busy marches are very popular in New Zealand, where they are organized by “tramping clubs”. In many countries, the ability to carry out heavy marches is an essential military skill, especially for infantry and special forces. Walking is particularly important in Britain, where all soldiers must perform heavy annual walk tests. In some climates, the use of laden steps is limited because they would result in high mortality rates due to heat exhaustion.
”’Life. Be in it. ” ‘Started as an Australian government program and an advertising campaign encouraging people to be more active and participate in recreational sports or other physical activities. The program began in 1975 with the state government of Victoria, the original idea of Brian Dixon, former Australian footballer and then Minister of Youth, Sports and Recreation. One of their first programs was to convince New Games co-founder Pat Farrington to provide five vans and 25 volunteers to drive around the rural townships of Victoria, teaching people to play games (New Games Book: p22) In 1977, the federal government expanded the program nationally. The campaign was also broadcast in the United States on local television stations during the 1970s and 1980s. Television commercials for the program are cartoons featuring people doing a wide range of activities, with a catchy melody “Be here today, live more of your life”. The main character is Norm, a middle-aged man with a prominent beer belly, supposed to represent a “normal” Australian type. Norm’s idea and advertising came from Phillip Adams and Alex Stitt; Stitt drew all the drawings. In the original series of television commercials, Norm was voiced by Max Gillies. In the 2000 recovery, the voice was provided by Dr. Colin Benjamin. The campaign was a huge success in terms of recognition, in 1979 about 83% and in 1982 about 94%. The recognition remains high at 85%. Federal funding ended in 1981, shifted to elite programs.
A recreation center in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia (also known as aquatic centers) and in Canada is a building or site specifically designed and operated by the city, borough council or district council. use the facilities.
Erwan Le Corre, a French American born September 10, 1971, is the founder and innovator of a physical education and lifestyle system known as MovNat, which derives from the French words “mouvement naturel”.
Erwan Le Corre grew up in the French village of Étréchy, then in Épinay-sur-Orge, south of Paris. As a child, he spent his free time exploring and playing in the fields and woods around his village. At 18, Le Corre received a black belt in karate. From the age of 19, he took a parkour training for 7 years with the Parisian stuntman Don Jean Haberey. During this period, he also started to run barefoot. At the age of 27, he began a training period that included sailing, Olympic weightlifting, rock climbing, long distance triathlon, trail running and Brazilian jiu-jitsu.
Kinesiological Stretching is a type of neuromuscular physical exercise designed to stretch a particular muscle. Named after kinesiology, this technique is used to gain flexibility, range of motion, and strength to achieve a new range of functional flexibility that can be applied to leg lifts, kicking, jumping, and dancing. gymnastics, yoga, cheerleading, ballet, martial arts techniques, etc. This neuromuscular technique is widely used to minimize the risk of muscle injury when stretching to achieve muscle flexibility.
Kinesiological stretching isolates the actions of the muscles one by one. It focuses mainly on muscles that are tighter than others. This method of stretching goes further and also helps to gain flexibility and strength faster than other stretching methods.
Kegel exercise, also known as pelvic floor exercise, consists of repeatedly contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor, now sometimes colloquially referred to as the “Kegel muscles”. The exercise can be performed multiple times each day, for several minutes at a time, for one to three months, to begin to have an effect. Kegel exercises can make the pelvic floor muscles stronger. These are the muscles that hold up the bladder and help keep it from leaking. Exercises are usually done to reduce urinary stress incontinence (especially after childbirth) and reduce premature ejaculation in men. Several tools exist to help with these exercises, although various studies debate the relative effectiveness of different tools versus traditional exercises. They were first described in 1948 by American gynecologist Arnold Kegel.
Factors such as pregnancy, childbirth, aging, being overweight, and abdominal surgery such as cesarean section, often result in the weakening of the pelvic muscles. This can be assessed by either digital examination of vaginal pressure or using a Kegel perineometer. Kegel exercises are useful in regaining pelvic floor muscle strength in such cases.
Kaatsu (Japanese: 加圧, often styled as KAATSU or K A A T SU ) is a patented exercise method developed by Dr. Yoshiaki Sato that is based on blood flow moderation exercise (or vascular occlusion moderation training) involving compression of the vasculature proximal to the exercising muscles by the Kaatsu Master device.
Jogging is a form of trotting or running at a slow or leisurely pace. The main intention is to increase physical fitness with less stress on the body than from faster running, or to maintain a steady speed for longer periods of time. Performed over long distances, it is a form of aerobic endurance training.
Jogging is running at a gentle pace. The definition of jogging as compared with running is not standard. One definition describes jogging as running slower than . Running is sometimes defined as requiring a moment of no contact to the ground, whereas jogging often sustains the contact. Jogging is also distinguished from running by having a wider lateral spacing of foot strikes, creating side-to-side movement that likely adds stability at slower speeds or when coordination is lacking.
An isometric exercise tool is a device used to exercise most body parts including the wrist and is often used as part of physical therapy or in order to build muscle strength in a low impact manner. Devices can range in size from large bulky machines used by physicians to small hand-held devices that can be used by an individual. Isometric devices have been used for centuries. The first devices did not display the users’ output; nowadays there are devices that can digitally output the users force. Before that some devices used an analog format.
Isometric exercise tools perform exercises or strength test using static contraction of a muscle without any visible movement in the angle of the joint. This is reflected in the name; the term “isometric” combines the prefix “iso” (same) with “metric” (distance), meaning that in these exercises the length of the muscle does not change, as compared to isotonic contractions (“tonos” means “tension” in Greek) in which the contraction strength does not change but the joint angle does. New isometric exercise tools often used force gauges and a micro processor and then output the force onto an LCD screen or store the information later to be downloaded onto a computer.
Isometric exercises can also be used at the bedside to differentiate various heart murmurs; the murmur of mitral regurgitation gets louder as compared to the quieter murmur of aortic stenosis.
Isometric exercise or isometrics are a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction (compared to concentric or eccentric contractions, called dynamic/isotonic movements). Isometrics are done in static positions, rather than being dynamic through a range of motion.
An isometric exercise is a form of exercise involving the static contraction of a muscle without any visible movement in the angle of the joint. The term “isometric” combines the Greek words “Isos” (equal) and “metria” (measuring), meaning that in these exercises the length of the muscle and the angle of the joint do not change, though contraction strength may be varied. This is in contrast to isotonic contractions, in which the contraction strength does not change, though the muscle length and joint angle do.
Isoinertial refers to a type of resistance used in physical training that maintains a constant inertia throughout the range of movement, which facilitates constant strength and maximum muscle strength in all angles. The term isointertial derives from the words iso (even) and inertial (resistance) which, in a terminology, describes the primary concept of the isointertial system or expresses the same inertia in the concentric and eccentric phases of muscular contraction.
Since the late eighties, during the long-term space travel, has been placed as a problem the ability to maintain the power of astronaut muscles engaged in missions, since the absence of gravity leads to an environment in which they operate ipotrofismo of the musculoskeletal system, is no longer called to bear the load of the body weight, as well as a reduction of the bone mineral density. Studies and research conducted on a solution that has led to the strengthening of astronaut muscles and thereafter, over the years, has become a very useful muscle training method for preservation, prevention and rehabilitation. In practice, a resistance training system was created with a belt and a steering wheel that, driven by the belt, controlled a process that generated movement regardless of the force of gravity.
Indoor cycling, often also called spinning, as an organized activity, is a form of exercise with classes focusing on endurance, strength, intervals, high intensity (race days) and recovery, and involves using a special stationary exercise bicycle with a weighted flywheel in a classroom setting..
Indian clubs or Persian meels (also mils), were a 19th century type of exercise equipment used to present resistance in movement, for developing strength and mobility. They consist of bowling-pin shaped wooden clubs of varying sizes and weights, which are swung in certain patterns as part of a strength exercise program. They can range in weight from a few pounds each, to special clubs that can weigh as much as up to 100 pounds. They were used in carefully choreographed routines in which the clubs were swung in unison by a group of exercisers, led by an instructor, similar to the USA’s 21st century aerobics or zumba classes. These routines would vary according to the group’s ability along with the weights of the clubs being used. Despite their common English name implying an Indian origin, the so-called Indian clubs were in fact originally found in Persia, where they are referred to as meels or mils (). The earliest records of this type of resistance device being used by wrestlers predates the 19th century, in ancient Persia, Egypt and the rest of the Middle East. Their practice has continued to the present day, notably in the varzesh-e bastani tradition practiced in the zurkaneh of Iran. From Persia, the Mughals brought meels to India, where they are still used by pehlwan (wrestlers) today. When the 19th century British colonists came across meels in India, they naturally referred to them as “Indian clubs,” ignoring their Persian origin.
Indian clubs or Persian meels (also mils), were a 19th century type of exercise equipment used to present resistance in movement, for developing strength and mobility. They consist of bowling-pin shaped wooden clubs of varying sizes and weights, which are swung in certain patterns as part of a strength exercise program. They can range in weight from a few pounds each, to special clubs that can weigh as much as up to 100 pounds. They were used in carefully choreographed routines in which the clubs were swung in unison by a group of exercisers, led by an instructor, similar to the USA’s 21st century aerobics or zumba classes. These routines would vary according to the group’s ability along with the weights of the clubs being used. Despite their common English name implying an Indian origin, the so-called Indian clubs were in fact originally found in Persia, where they are referred to as meels or mils (). The earliest records of this type of resistance device being used by wrestlers predates the 19th century, in ancient Persia, Egypt and the rest of the Middle East. Their practice has continued to the present day, notably in the varzesh-e bastani tradition practiced in the zurkaneh of Iran. From Persia, the Mughals brought meels to India, where they are still used by pehlwan (wrestlers) today. When the 19th century British colonists came across meels in India, they naturally referred to them as “Indian clubs,” ignoring their Persian origin. Exceptionally popular during the fitness movement of the late Victorian era, used by military cadets and well-heeled ladies alike, they appeared as a gymnastic event in the 1904 and 1932 Olympics. Gymnasiums were built solely to cater to club exercise groups. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries they became increasingly common in Europe, the British Commonwealth and the United States. Circa 1913/14 the Bodyguard unit of the British suffragette movement carried Indian clubs as concealed weapons for use against the truncheons of the police . The popularity of Indian clubs waned in Europe during the 1920s and 1930s as organized sports became more prevalent.
Incremental exercise is exercise that increases in intensity over time. An incremental exercise test (IET) is determined by different variables. These include the initial starting rate, the consecutive work rates, increments and the duration of each increment. These variables can be modified extensively to suit the purpose of the training program or the individual. Incremental exercise is a widely accepted method of sourcing health related information. Incremental exercise is often used during fitness tests such as the YMCA sub-maximal test, YoYo test and the commonly known Beep test. Multiple methods of incremental exercise tests have also proved useful in identifying and monitoring individuals’ or teams’ adaptation to training. Incremental exercise has proved to be useful for determining the simplest of factors, such as an individual’s adaptation to a training program or physical fitness level, or some of the most complex factors. The exercise method is utilised in copious health studies to determine various health related propositions and results. These include determining the reproducibility of the lower limbs activity level and, for clinical purposes, determining patient’s anaerobic exercise responses and difficulties of daily living. From a clinical perspective there are three methods of incremental exercise that are commonly used in association with patients:
The Illinois agility test is a fitness test designed to test one’s sport agility. It is a simple test which is easy to administer and requires little equipment. It tests the ability to turn in different directions and at different angles. The aim of the test is to complete a weaving running course in the shortest possible time. Cones mark the course. The subject starts face down, with the head to the start line and hands by the shoulders. At the whistle, the subject runs the course, without knocking down any cones. The course can be measured out either in meters or feet (10 m long by 5 m wide or 30 ft long by 15 ft wide) The world record for the test was formerly held by Nick Wald (AUS) who completed the course in 10.28 seconds on 9 December 2011, until he was stripped of his title after an investigation conducted by WADA (World Anti Doping Agency) in late 2011 as he was found to have “an above average level of MDMA within his blood stream”. WADA’s investigation of Nick Wald led to the arrest of Dr. Henry Sestak and Dr. Dominic Mallia, for possessing and administering excessive amounts of MDMA into the bloodstream of numerous athletes. The world record is currently held by Miltiadis Papachatzakis (Greece). Miltiadis completed the course in 10.14 seconds on October 14 2016, in Athens, Greece. Miltiadis is believed to currently be on two strikes under the sports illicit drugs policy. Miltiadis was awarded a second strike in early 2016 for testing positive to an illicit substance during his visit to Colombia. Former world record holder Dan Kerr has declared that he will return to the sport when his current drug ban expires. WADA handed down Kerr a four-year ban from the sport in 2012, for administering and possessing high levels of diuretic tablets.
Hypertrophy (, from Greek ὑπέρ “excess” + τροφή “nourishment”) is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells. It is distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number. Although hypertrophy and hyperplasia are two distinct processes, they frequently occur together, such as in the case of the hormonally-induced proliferation and enlargement of the cells of the uterus during pregnancy. Eccentric hypertrophy is a type of hypertrophy where the walls and chamber of a hollow organ undergo growth in which the overall size and volume are enlarged. It is applied especially to the left ventricle of heart. Sarcomeres are added in series, as for example in dilated cardiomyopathy (in contrast to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, a type of concentric hypertrophy, where sarcomeres are added in parallel).
House Gymnastics is a sport created by James Robert Ford and Spencer Harrison. This fitness regime is akin to an indoor version of Parkour or an internet based, Fluxus “happening”, which encourages maximum audience participation. The participant uses their surroundings in their house as apparatus. When someone performs House Gymnastics, the aim is to create human sculptures that last around 3 seconds. Viewers can sign up as members, submit photos and enter the Move of Month competition.
House Gymnastics originated during an attempt by Harrison and Ford to put up a bedroom blind. “The Brace” and “The 25th Element” were the first moves conceived. From there on in moves were being created on a daily basis. Language was developed to compliment the physicality of House Gymnastics, and new moves and areas of were given names. As such, words such as “busted” and “amped” were developed and entered the “House Gymnastics” vocabulary.
Hot cycling refers to a spin class performed in a room heated between 80 and 84 degrees Fahrenheit. Like hot yoga, which uses heat to increase an individual’s flexibility in the poses. Heated exercise at temperatures of 100 degrees Fahrenheit has also been shown to strengthen the immune system and increase the volume of oxygenated blood which can lower cholesterol.
Georges Hébert (27 April 1875 – 2 August 1957) was a pioneering physical educator in the French military who developed a system of physical education and training known as “la méthode naturelle” (“Natural Method”), which combined the training of a wide variety of physical capacities with the training of courage and morality.
Hébert was born in Paris. While an officer in the French Navy prior to the First World War, Hébert was stationed in the town of St. Pierre, on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean Sea. In 1902 the town fell victim to a catastrophic volcanic eruption. Hébert coordinated the escape and rescue of some seven hundred people from this disaster. This experience had a profound effect on him, and reinforced his belief that athletic skill must be combined with courage and altruism. He eventually developed this ethos into his personal motto, “Être fort pour être utile” (“Being strong to be useful”). Hébert had travelled extensively throughout the world and was impressed by the physical development and movement skills of indigenous peoples in Africa and elsewhere: Their bodies were splendid, flexible, nimble, skillful, enduring, resistant and yet they had no other tutor in gymnastics but their lives in nature.
Gymkhana is an equestrian event consisting of speed pattern racing and timed games for riders on horses. These events often emphasize children’s participation and may be organized by a recognized Pony Club or a 4-H club. In parts of the western United States, this type of competition is usually called an “O-Mok-See” (also spelled “omoksee” or without hyphenation as “o mok see”) competition, a term derived from a Native American phrase said to mean “games on horseback.” Very small events with little or no prize money, designed for beginners or riders at a local level, are sometimes called playdays. Gymkhana is the word used in most of the rest of the English-speaking world, including the United Kingdom, and both the east and west coasts of the United States.
Gymkhana and o-mok-see classes include timed speed events such as barrel racing, pole bending, keyhole race, keg race (also known as “down and back”), flag racing, and stake race. Some organizations include ride and run, musical mats, egg stomp, $1 bill race or “ride a buck”, and sack race. Most of these events are designed to display precise, controlled actions and tight teamwork between horse and rider at speed, and demonstrate many skills such as flying lead changes, sliding stops and more. Most clubs offer a variety of classes for all ages and abilities of people, allowing riders to compete at the speed level at which they are most capable and comfortable.
A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for gymnastics, athletics, and gymnastic services. The word is derived from the ancient Greek gymnasium. They are commonly found in athletic and fitness centers, and as activity and learning spaces in educational institutions. “Gym” is also slang for “fitness center”, which is often an area for indoor recreation. Gymnasia apparatus such as barbells, parallel bars, jumping board, running path, tennis-balls, cricket field, fencing area, and so forth are used as exercises. In safe weather, outdoor locations are the most conducive to health. Gyms were popular in ancient Greece. Their curricula included Gymnastica militaria or self-defense, gymnastica medica, or physical therapy to help the sick and injured, and gymnastica athletica for physical fitness and sports, from boxing to dancing. These gymnasia also had teachers of wisdom and philosophy. Community gymnastic events were done as part of the celebrations during various village festivals. In ancient Greece there was a phrase of contempt, “He can neither swim nor write.” After a while, however, Olympic athletes began training in buildings specifically designed for them. Community sports never became as popular among ancient Romans as it had among the ancient Greeks. Gyms were used more as a preparation for military service or spectator sports. During the Roman Empire, the gymnastic art was forgotten. In the Dark Ages there were sword fighting tournaments and of chivalry; and after gunpowder was invented sword fighting began to be replaced by the sport of fencing. There were schools of dagger fighting and wrestling and boxing. Then in the 18th century, Salzmann, German clergyman, opened a gym in Thuringia teaching bodily exercises, including running and swimming. Clias and Volker established gyms in London, and in 1825, Doctor Beck, a German immigrant, established the first gymnasium in the United States. It was found that gym pupils lose interest in doing the same exercises, partly because of age. Variety in exercises included skating, dancing, and swimming. Some gym activities can be done by 6 to 8 year-olds while age 16 has been considered mature enough for boxing and horseback riding. In Ancient Greece, the gymnasion (γυμνάσιον) was a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men. The latter meaning of intellectual education persisted in Greek, German and other languages to denote a certain type of school providing secondary education, the gymnasium, whereas in English the meaning of physical education pertained in the word ‘gym’. The Greek word gymnasium means “school for naked exercise” and was used to designate a locality for the education of young men, including physical education (gymnastics, i.e. exercise) which was customarily performed naked, as well as bathing, and studies. For the Greeks, physical education was considered as important as cognitive learning. Most Greek gymnasia had libraries that could be utilized after relaxing in the baths.
Green group exercise refers to physical exercise performed in natural environments carried out as a group. Physical exercise has positive results for physical and mental health, there is growing evidence confirming the benefits that come from contact with nature, while the work of Professor Jules Pretty at the University of Essex has revealed the synergistic benefits of combining the two green exercises New research, conducted by Auckland University of Technology, is investigating the additional social, physical and mental health benefits of the Green Group Exercise.
The Gokhale Method or Primal Posture method is a postural awareness technique developed by acupuncturist and yoga instructor Esther Gokhale. The method proposes that certain patterns exist in the way people in pre-modern and less industrialized societies move and adopt posture. Gokhale claims that these patterns, which she calls , can be learned through practice. The method became popular in the beginning of the 2010s among professionals in the Silicon Valley, where Gokhale is located.
Gokhale started searching for a method to cope with her own back pain, including sciatica and spinal disc herniation which began with her first pregnancy. She based the method on training in the Feldenkrais Method and from a French organization for postural awareness called the Aplomb Institute. <ref name=”Wallace 2013″ /> Gokhale also spent ten years observing and photographing people’s posture in less industrialized societies. Gokhale started teaching in a studio at Palo Alto, California.
Elena Gibson (born 25 October 1976) is a pole dance choreographer, teacher and performer who has played a leading role in the development of pole dancing as an art form and sport across the world. She was the first World Pole Dancing Champion when crowned Miss Pole Dance World in 2005, before being controversially disqualified 24 hours later. She is the UK representative of the International Pole Federation (IPF), the European representative of the International Pole Fitness Federation (IPFF) and a member of the International Dance Council (CID UNESCO).
General strength exercises are the physical exercises that are used in overall body conditioning. They are not directly related to the specific actions seen in a specific sport (i.e., strengthening the muscles as they are used in a specific sport and increasing an athlete’s functional potential for improved performance). The overhead press exercise which is used by runners can illustrate the concept of a general strength exercise. It is a common exercise in which the arms move directly upward overhead. In running, however, the arms move in a forward-backward motion in relation to the trunk. Thus, the overhead press is a good exercise for strengthening the shoulders and arms, but, even though it uses some of the same muscles that are involved in running, it is not directly related to running. If an athlete has weak shoulders this exercise can improve strength capabilities which may indirectly help an athlete’s arms during a run. This exercise is not, however, as effective as an exercise in which the arm and shoulder movements duplicate the exact action (pathway) seen in running. This is known as a specialized exercise. An example of a specialized exercise for the shoulders is driving the arm from behind the body to in front of the body in the same pathway and in the same range of motion as seen in the running stride. The key to improving athletic performance is to perform general exercises to develop a base and to then perform special exercises that duplicate the movements and actions seen in the actual skills execution. In this way, the development of the physical abilities that are specific to any sport will have the greatest impact on maintaining or improving the athlete’s ability to perform better. Because of the need for skill duplication most exercises are best done with rubber tubing as in the Active Cords set. The cords are especially important for the leg, hip and shoulder actions. The reason for this is that it is very difficult and in some cases impossible, to duplicate the exact movements of the legs, hips and shoulders with dumbbells, barbells or machines. Medicine ball exercises are also used for strength and explosive muscular development.
General fitness training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance. A regular moderate workout regimen and healthy diet can improve general appearance markers of good health such as muscle tone, healthy skin, hair and nails, while preventing age or lifestyle-related reductions in health and the series of heart and organ failures that accompany inactivity and poor diet. Diet itself helps to increase calorie burning by boosting metabolism, a process further enhanced while gaining more lean muscle. An aerobic exercise program can burn fat and increase the metabolic rate.
General fitness training may be used to promote weight loss. Personal trainers construct a program centered on restructuring lifestyle while helping to provide the necessary motivation for its success. General fitness training can also be used to promote toning or building of muscles, which are essentially the same physiological process. (However, ‘toning’ implies moderate muscle definition, whereas ‘building’ implies increasing musculature significantly.)
Functional training is a classification of exercise which involves training the body for the activities performed in daily life.
Functional training has its origins in rehabilitation. Physical and Occupational therapists and Chiropractors often use this approach to retrain patients with movement disorders. Interventions are designed to incorporate task and context specific practice in areas meaningful to each patient, with an overall goal of functional independence. For example, exercises that mimic what patients did at home or work may be included in treatment in order to help them return to their lives or jobs after an injury or surgery. Thus if a patient’s job required repeatedly heavy lifting, rehabilitation would be targeted towards heavy lifting, if the patient were a parent of young children, it would be targeted towards moderate lifting and endurance, and if the patient were a marathon runner, training would be targeted towards re-building endurance. However, treatments are designed after careful consideration of the patient’s condition, what he or she would like to achieve, and ensuring goals of treatment are realistic and achievable. Functional training attempts to adapt or develop exercises which allow individuals to perform the activities of daily life more easily and without injuries. In the context of body building, functional training involves mainly weight bearing activities targeted at core muscles of the abdomen and lower back. Fabio Martella wrote that most fitness facilities have a variety of weight training machines which target and isolate specific muscles. As a result, the movements do not necessarily bear any relationship to the movements people make in their regular activities or sports. In rehabilitation, training does not necessarily have to involve weight bearing activities, but can target any task or a combination of tasks that a patient is having difficulty with. Balance training, for example, is often incorporated into a patient’s treatment plan if it has been impaired after injury or disease.
:See Kata for “Form” as used in the context of martial arts. Form is a specific way of performing a movement, often a strength training exercise, to avoid injury, prevent cheating and increase strength.
Exercises or drills in sport have a recognized way of performing the movements that have two purposes:
By using proper or ‘good and’ form, the risk of injury is lowered. A lack of proper form commonly results in injury or a lack of effect from the exercise being performed
Football strength is a training regime, considered the most complex physical quality to be developed by an athlete. The training regime, exercises used, how the exercises are performed, and the types of equipment all play important roles in achieving desired results.
Floor-barre is a technique in ballet training that “takes the basic ballet barre training from the standing position to the floor, “taking the effort of standing out of the equation.”Zena Rommett(R) originated Floor Barre in the 1960s in New York City one day in class, when she found herself telling the students at the ballet barre to “just lie down on the floor and start all over again.” Zena Rommett spent her lifetime further refining and passing on her technique until her death at 89 in New York City. Floor-Barre(R), a registered trademark for the exclusive use of Zena Rommett and her legally certified Zena Rommett Floor-Barre(R) teachers, strengthens the body, lengthens the muscles, and enhance the working of ballet dancers. The name of the technique as first used in English by Zena Rommett states its essence, which takes the basic ballet barre training from the standing position to the floor, “taking the effort of standing out of the equation”. Since 1998 Zena Rommett Floor-Barre(R) Foundation holds August Certification/Renewal conferences at City Center of New York City, where teachers of Zena Rommett Floor-Barre(R) are certified and re-certified so that the technique will continue to progress instead of fossilizing. Summer conferences in Italy According to Rommett, the technique allows the trainees to enhance their precision and posture, making fixes that remain in their muscle memory and become evident as they go back to train in standing position. Rommett also claims that by training in this technique certain typical dancer injuries can be prevented.
The Five Tibetan Rites is a system of exercises reported to be more than 2,500 years old which were first publicized by Peter Kelder in a 1939 publication titled The Eye of Revelation. The Rites are said to be a form of Tibetan yoga similar to the yoga series that originated in India. However, the Five Rites and traditional Tibetan yoga both emphasize “a continuous sequence of movement” (Sanskrit: vinyasa), whereas Indian forms focus on “static positions”. Although the Rites have circulated amongst yogis for decades, skeptics say that Tibetans have never recognized them as being authentic Tibetan practices. The Five Tibetan Rites are also referred to as “The Five Rites”, “The Five Tibetans” and “The Five Rites of Rejuvenation”.
Although practically nothing is known about Kelder, one source reports that he was raised as an adopted child in the mid-western United States and left home while in his teens in search of adventure. In the 1930s, Kelder claims to have met, in southern California, a retired British army colonel who shared with him stories of travel and the subsequent discovery of the Rites. Originally written as a 32-page booklet, the publication is the result of Kelder’s conversations with the colonel.
A fitness trail, outdoor exercise equipment, or parcourse, consists of a or equipped with obstacles or stations distributed along its length for exercising the human body to promote good health. The course is designed to promote physical fitness training in the style attributed to Georges Hébert. In general, fitness trails can be natural or man-made, located in areas such as forest, transportation rights-of-way, parks, or urban settings. Equipment exists to provide specific forms of physiological exercise, and can consist of natural features including climbable rocks, trees, and river embankments, or manufactured products (stepping posts, chin-up and climbing bars) designed to provide similar physical challenges. The degree of difficulty of a course is determined by terrain slope, trail surface (dirt, grass, gravel, etc.), obstacle height (walls) or length (crawls) and other features. Urban parcourses tend to be flat, to permit participation by the elderly, and to accommodate cyclists, runners, skaters and walking. The new concept of an outdoor gym, containing traditional gym equipment specifically designed for outdoor use, is also considered to be a development of the parcourse. These outdoor exercise gyms include moving parts and are often made from galvanised metal.
A fitness professional is a professional in the field of fitness and exercise, most often instruction (fitness instructor), including aerobics and yoga instructors and authors of fitness instruction books or manuals. Fitness topics may also include nutrition, weight-loss, and self-help. Fitness careers are distinguished from exercise science careers such as athletic training, however the various types of fitness certifications have more and more in common: the, “distinctions…have become blurred, with more similarities than differences given the common background that all fitness professionals must possess.” Fitness professionals screen participants for exercise programs, evaluate various fitness components, prescribe exercise to improve these components, and may also help people with specific or chronic conditions. Fitness professionals help challenge an individual by increasing their performance, as compared to when a person would workout on their own. They also teach a person new workouts and how to improve their form, performance and help achieve goals.The key roles and duties of a fitness professional are to: motivate, assist clients and measure your heart rate and body fat levels. Trainers need to be patient, be well organized and have time management as well as interpersonal skills.“You are in a helping profession. Although you are not a social worker, psychologist or guidance counselor, neither are you simply a technician with advanced training in exercise science, biomechanics, program design and assessment methodology.”(Jim and Nettie Gavin) Notable fitness professionals or former fitness professionals include Richard Simmons, Susan Powter, John Sitaras and Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger (”Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Total Body Workout”). Certified fitness professionals must maintain up-to-date on all certifications in order to instruct at particular health clubs and gyms. Often, fitness professionals will have some education in kinesiology, anatomy, and biomechanics to aid in their fitness career. In Canada, Canadian Fitness Education Services (CFES) provides national fitness leadership program modules to take candidates through the steps in Aquafit, Group Fitness and/or Weight Training Instructor and Personal Trainer national certification. Personal training, Athletic training, and physical therapy are all technically distinct specialties with different processes and requirements for certification. In the United States the main certifying agency for personal trainers is ACSM (the American College of Sports Medicine), while the main certifying agency for athletic trainers is NATA (the National Athletic Trainers’ Association). Obtaining certification or licensure as a physical therapist requires that you attend and graduate from a masters or doctoral program in physical therapy.
While fitness is defined as and fashion is a strictly correlated with the wish of appearing as a well-accepted member of contemporary society, fitness fashion is the result of a trend that consists in combining physical activities and health lifestyles with the interest and use of sportswear fashion.
Fitness culture is a sociocultural phenomenon which refers to the culture surrounding physical exercises. It is usually associated with gym culture, as doing physical exercises in locations such as gyms, wellness centres and health clubs is a popular activity. An international survey found that more than 27% of world total adult population attends fitness centres, and that 61% of regular exercisers are currently doing “gym-type” activities.
A fitness boot camp is a type of group physical training program conducted by gyms, personal trainers, and former military personnel. These programs are designed to build strength and fitness through a variety of intense group intervals over a 1-hour period of time. Originally popular in the US, they were brought over to the UK in 1999 and have been growing in popularity ever since. Boot Camp training often commences with dynamic stretching and running, followed by a wide variety of interval training, including lifting weights/objects, pulling rubber TRX straps, pushups/situps, plyometrics, and various types of intense explosive routines. Sessions usually finish with yoga stretching. Many other exercises using weights and/or body weight, similar to CrossFit routines, are used to lose body fat, increase cardiovascular efficiency, increase strength, and help people get into a routine of regular exercise. Many programs offer nutrition advice as well. It is called “boot camp” because it trains groups of people, may be outdoors, and may or may not be similar to military basic training. The term “boot camp” is currently used in the fitness industry to describe group fitness classes that promote fat loss, camaraderie, and team effort. They are designed to push people a little bit further than they would normally push themselves in the gym alone. Boot Camps are sometimes organized outdoors in parks using bodyweight exercises like push ups, squats, suspension training and burpees, interspersed with running and competitive games. The idea is that everyone involved works at their own pace as they team up and work towards one goal, either in pairs, small teams of three or four, or even two teams head on.Boot camps provide social support for those taking part.
The Feldenkrais Method is a type of exercise therapy devised by Moshé Feldenkrais (1904–1984). The method is claimed to reorganize connections between the brain and body and so improve body movement and psychological state. There is no good medical evidence that the Feldenkrais method confers any health benefits, and it is not known if it is safe or cost-effective, even though it is hard to conceive of serious risks.
In 2015, the Australian Government’s Department of Health published the results of a review of alternative therapies that sought to determine if any were suitable for being covered by health insurance; the Feldenkrais Method was one of 17 therapies evaluated for which no clear evidence of effectiveness was found. Accordingly in 2017 the Australian government named the Feldenkrais Method as a practice that would not qualify for insurance subsidy, saying this step would “ensure taxpayer funds are expended appropriately and not directed to therapies lacking evidence”. It is not known whether the Feldenkrais method is safe or cost-effective, though according to Ernst and Singh’s overview of alternative medicine “there are no conceivable serious risks”. David Gorski has written that the Method bears similarities to faith healing, is like “glorified yoga” and that it “borders on quackery”.
Fascia training describes sports activities and movement exercises that attempt to improve the functional properties of the muscular connective tissues in the human body, such as tendons, ligaments, joint capsules and muscular envelopes. Also called fascia, these tissues take part in a body-wide tensional force transmission network and are responsive to training stimulation.
Whenever muscles and joints are moved this also exerts mechanical strain on related fascia. The general assumption in sports science had therefore been that muscle strength exercises as well as cardiovascular training would be sufficient for an optimal training of the associate fibrous connective tissues. However, recent ultrasound-based research revealed that the mechanical threshold for a training effect on tendinous tissues tends to be significantly higher than for muscle fibers. This insight happened roughly during the same time in which the field of fascia research attracted major attention by showing that fascial tissues are much more than passive transmitters of muscular tension (years 2007 – 2010). Both influences together triggered an increasing attention in sports science towards the question whether and how fascial tissues can be specifically stimulated with active exercises.
Facial toning, or facial exercise is a type of cosmetic procedure or physical therapy tool which promises to alter facial contours by means of increasing muscle tone, and facial volume by promoting muscular hypertrophy, and preventing muscle loss due to aging or facial paralysis. Facial toning and exercise is therefore in part a technique to achieve facial rejuvenation by reducing wrinkles, sagging and expression marks on the face and skin. Freilinger G, Gruber H, Happak W, Pechmann U. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1987 Nov;80(5):686-90. “Surgical anatomy of the mimic muscle system and the facial nerve: importance for reconstructive and aesthetic surgery”] . Department of Plastic Surgery, 2nd Surgical University Clinic, Vienna, Austria. As a physical therapy, facial toning is used for victims of stroke and forms of facial paralysis such as Bell’s palsy. Facial toning achieves this by performing facial muscle exercising. There are two types of facial toning exercises: active and passive face exercises.
Extended length conditioning (ELC) also known as “end range conditioning” is a type of physical exercise that strengthens the body muscles through a wide range of flexible motions. ELC exercises are end range exercises or deep range exercises that contract the muscles from full stretch. A typical example of extended length conditioning is the stiffed legged deadlift which is meant for strengthening one of the three posterior thigh muscles referred to as “hamstring”.
Extended length conditioning exercises can help people get more comfortable, feel stronger and protected in a deep range. The exercises allow for better cold flexibility and faster warm up. They also encourage prevention of injuries developed during muscle stretching. Extended length conditioning exercises help people to stay safe and maintain their flexibility gains. They also add to the overall strength of the individuals.
Exertion is the physical or perceived use of energy . Exertion traditionally connotes a strenuous or costly effort,resulting in generation of force, initiation of motion, or in the performance of work . It often relates to muscular activity and can be quantified, empirically and by measurable metabolic response.
In physics, exertion is the expenditure of energy against, or inductive of, inertia as described by Isaac Newton’s third law of motion. In physics, force exerted equivocates work done . The ability to do work can be either positive or negative depending on the direction of exertion relative to gravity. For example, a force exerted upwards, like lifting an object, creates positive work done on that object . Exertion often results in force generated, a contributing dynamic of general motion . In mechanics it describes the use of force against a body in the direction of its motion (see vector).
Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work. This has been accompanied by increasing use of mechanized transportation, a greater prevalence of labor saving technology in the home, and less active recreational pursuits. At least 31% of the world’s population does not get sufficient physical exercise. This is true in almost all developed and developing countries, and among children. Some experts refer to sitting as “the new smoking” because of its negative effects on overall health. These exercise trends are contributing to the rising rates of chronic diseases including: obesity, heart disease, stroke and high cholesterol. Active transport (walking, bicycling, etc.) has been found to be inversely related to obesity in Europe, North America, and Australia. Thus exercise has been associated with a decrease in mortality.
One of the causes most prevalent in the developing world is urbanization. As more of the population moves to cities, population over-crowding, increased poverty, increased levels of crime, high-density traffic, low air quality and lack of parks, sidewalks and recreational sports facilities leads to a less active lifestyle. Physical inactivity is increasing or high among many groups in the population including: young people, women, and the elderly. A 2005 population study in south Brazil showed physical inactivity during leisure time to be more prevalent among females and those living with a partner; with a positive correlation associated with age and number of cigarettes smoked, and a negative correlation (decreased levels of physical inactivity) associated with years of formal education, body mass index, and increasing socioeconomic status. Studies in children and adults have found an association between the number of hours of television watched and the prevalence of obesity. A 2008 meta analysis found that 63 of 73 studies (86%) showed an increased rate of childhood obesity with increased media exposure, and rates increasing proportionally to time spent watching television. Another cause in the case of children is that physical activity in activities from self-propelled transport, to school physical education, and organized sports is declining in many countries. Read More…
Although they vary in particulars, polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion body myositis are idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) primarily characterized by chronic inflammation of human skeletal muscle tissue that ultimately causes the necrosis of muscle cells. This degeneration leads to muscle tissue wasting, weakness and fatigue among other serious effects. Until recently, exercise has been avoided as a type of therapy, and even forbidden due to the risk of triggering or amplifying inflammation. However, several studies have been conducted to test this assumption and have shown that aerobic exercise as well as resistance training can maintain and even improve quality of life for IIM-affected individuals without increased inflammatory response.
Exercise prescription software is a branch of computer software designed to aid in the construction of exercise programmes or regimes for patients who require some kind of ongoing rehabilitation. Exercise prescription is common in physiotherapy practices where traditionally patients would be given a printed handout with diagrams and instructions describing any rehabilitation exercises. As high speed internet becomes prevalent in the home, and paperless offices are more desirable, prescribed exercises are often e-mailed to patients instead of given on handouts and diagrams replaced by instructional videos.
Exercise prescription commonly refers to the specific plan of fitness-related activities that are designed for a specified purpose, which is often developed by a fitness or rehabilitation specialist for the client or patient. Due to the specific and unique needs and interests of the client/patient, the goal of exercise prescription should be focused on motivation and customization, thus making achieving goals more likely to become successful.
Exercise intolerance is a condition of inability or decreased ability to perform physical exercise at what would be considered to be the normally expected level or duration. It also includes experiences of unusually severe post-exercise pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting or other negative effects. Exercise intolerance is not a disease or syndrome in and of itself, but can result from various disorders. Intolerance to exercise may be caused by unusual breathlessness (dyspnea), muscle pain (myalgia), tachypnoea (abnormally rapid breathing), tachycardia (having a faster heart rate than normal) or increasing muscle weakness; or exercise might result in severe headache, nausea, dizziness, occasional muscle cramps or extreme fatigue, which would make it intolerable. In most cases, the specific reason that exercise is not tolerated is of considerable significance when trying to isolate the cause down to a specific disease. Dysfunctions involving the pulmonary, cardiovascular or neuromuscular systems have been frequently found to be associated with exercise intolerance, with behavioural causes also playing a part.
* Orthostatic intolerance (OI) occurs in CFS. OI includes exercise intolerance as one of the main symptoms. It also includes fatigue, nausea, headaches, cognitive problems and visual disturbances as other less major symptoms.
Exercise intensity refers to how much energy is expended when exercising. Perceived intensity varies with each person. It has been found that intensity has an effect on what fuel the body uses and what kind of adaptations the body makes after exercise. Intensity is the amount of physical power (expressed as a percentage of the maximal oxygen consumption) that the body uses when performing an activity. For example, exercise intensity defines how hard the body has to work to walk a mile in 20 minutes.
Exercise hypertension is an excessive rise in blood pressure during exercise. Many of those with exercise hypertension have spikes in systolic pressure to 250 mmHg or greater. A rise in systolic blood pressure to over 200 mmHg when exercising at 100 W is pathological and a rise in pressure over 220 mmHg needs to be controlled by the appropriate drugs. Similarly, in healthy individuals the response of the diastolic pressure to ‘dynamic’ exercise (e.g. walking, running or jogging) of moderate intensity is to remain constant or to fall slightly (due to the improved blood flow), but in some individuals a rise of 10 mmHg or greater is found. Recent work at Johns Hopkins involving a group of athletes aged 55 to 75 with mild hypertension has found a correlation of those with exercise hypertension to a reduced ability of the major blood vessels to change in size in response to increased blood flow (probably due to impaired function of the endothelial cells in the vessel walls). This is to be differentiated from stiffness of the blood-vessel walls, which was not found to be correlated with the effect.
Bulimia exercise is a subset of the bulimia mental illness in which a person is forced to exert in an effort to burn calories from food energy and fat reserves to an excessive level that negatively affects their health. The damage normally occurs by not giving the body enough rest for sports recovery compared to their exercise levels, leading to increasing levels of decay. If the person eats a normally healthy and adequate diet, but exercises levels that they know require higher levels of nutrition, this can also be considered a form of anorexia.
Physical exercise has been found to be associated with changes in androgen levels. In cross-sectional analyses, aerobic exercisers have lower basal total and free testosterone compared to the sedentary. Anaerobic exercisers also have lower testosterone compared to the sedentary but a slight increase in basal testosterone with resistance training over time. There is some correlation between testosterone and physical activity in the middle aged and elderly. Acutely, testosterone briefly increases when comparing aerobic, anaerobic and mixed forms of exercise. A study assessed men who were resistance trained, endurance trained, or sedentary in which they either rested, ran or did a resistance session. Androgens increased in response to exercise, particularly resistance, while cortisol only increased with resistance. DHEA increased with resistance exercise and remained elevated during recovery in resistance-trained subjects. After initial post-exercise increase, there was decline in free and total testosterone during resistance recovery, particularly in resistance-trained subjects. Endurance-trained subjects showed less change in hormone levels in response to exercise than resistance-trained subjects. Another study found relative short term effects of aerobic, anaerobic and combined anaerobic-aerobic exercise protocols on hormone levels did not change. The study noted increases in testosterone and cortisol immediately after exercise, which in 2 hours returned to baseline levels.
Exercise addiction is a state characterized by a compulsive engagement in any form of physical exercise, despite negative consequences. While regular exercise is generally a healthy activity, exercise addiction generally involves performing excessive amounts of exercise to the detriment of physical health, spending too much time exercising to the detriment of personal and professional life, and exercising regardless of physical injury. It may also involve a state of dependence upon regular exercise which involves the occurrence of severe withdrawal symptoms when the individual is unable to exercise. Differentiating between addictive and healthy exercise behaviors is difficult but there are key factors in determining which category a person may fall into. Exercise addiction shows a high comorbidity with eating disorders. Exercise addiction is not listed as a disorder in the fourth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This type of addiction can be classified under a behavioral addiction in which a person’s behavior becomes obsessive, compulsive, and/or causes dysfunction in a person’s life. The next revision of the DSM (DSM-5) will include an addictions and related disorders section; gambling is the only non-substance addiction that is likely to be included. Other non-substance addictions, such as exercise addiction, are being researched but their inclusion is undetermined.
EPODE International Network (EIN) is a not for profit, non-governmental organisation that seeks to support childhood obesity-prevention programmes across the world, via best practice sharing and capacity building. The name EPODE comes from ‘Ensemble Prévenons l’ObésitéDes Enfants’ ”’Together Let’s Prevent Childhood Obesity”’ The EPODE International Network (EIN), is a Nonprofit organization, and is a contribution to the response to the need and demand from the global community in the fight against childhood obesity and Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), through sustainable and large-sale Community Based Programmes (CBPs) for childhood obesity prevention. In light of the encouraging experiences and results of the EPODE methodology (Towns in Belgium that implemented the program saw a 22 per cent decrease in overweight children ), the EPODE International Network, was created in 2011 as a response to the global demand for action concerning the increasing international prevalence of overweight and obesity and the related non-communicable diseases. The EPODE International Network works to promote and enhance the global movement to prevent childhood obesity by supporting Community Based Programmes (CBPs) for childhood obesity prevention through sustainable and large-sale strategies that mobilise a multi-stakeholder dynamic.
Endurance training is the act of exercising to increase endurance. The term endurance training generally refers to training the aerobic system as opposed to the anaerobic system. The need for endurance in sports is often predicated as the need of cardiovascular and simple muscular endurance, but the issue of endurance is far more complex. Endurance can be divided into two categories including: general endurance and specific endurance. It can be shown that endurance in sport is closely tied to the execution of skill and technique. A well conditioned athlete can be defined as, the athlete who executes his or her technique consistently and effectively with the least effort.
Endurance (also related to, resilience, and hardiness) is the ability of an organism to exercise and stay active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, resist, recover, and have the ability to resist. immunity to trauma. , injury or fatigue. It is generally used in aerobic or anaerobic exercises. The definition of “long” varies depending on the type of effort – minutes for high intensity anaerobic exercise, hours or days for low intensity aerobic exercise. Training for endurance may reduce the ability to exert endurance unless an individual also engages in resistance training to counteract this effect. When a person is able to accomplish or endure an effort greater than his or her initial abilities, their endurance increases which, for many staff, indicates progress. By seeking to improve their endurance, they can slowly increase the amount of repetition or time spent, if higher repetitions are taken quickly, muscle strength improves while less endurance is gained. Increasing stamina has been proven to release endorphins resulting in a positive spirit. It has been shown that gaining endurance through physical activity decreases anxiety, depression and stress, or any chronic illness in total. Although greater endurance can help the cardiovascular system, this does not imply that any improvement in cardiovascular disease can be guaranteed. “The main metabolic consequences of muscle adaptations to endurance exercise are slower use of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, greater dependence on fat oxidation, and decreased lactate production during exercise. of a given intensity. ” The term endurance is sometimes used synonymously and interchangeably with endurance. In military contexts, endurance is considered as the ability of a force to maintain high levels of combat potential relative to its adversary for the duration of a campaign. Endurance can also refer to an ability to continue through a difficult situation involving hardship, stress, etc. (see patience)
Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. EMS has received an increasing amount of attention in the last few years for many reasons: it can be utilized as a strength training tool for healthy subjects and athletes; it could be used as a rehabilitation and preventive tool for partially or totally immobilized patients; it could be utilized as a testing tool for evaluating the neural and/or muscular function in vivo; it could be used as a post-exercise recovery tool for athletes. The impulses are generated by a device and are delivered through electrodes on the skin near to the muscles being stimulated. The electrodes are generally pads that adhere to the skin. The impulses mimic the action potential that comes from the central nervous system, causing the muscles to contract. The use of EMS has been cited by sports scientists as a complementary technique for sports training, and published research is available on the results obtained. Examples of peer-reviewed research articles attesting increased muscular performance by utilizing EMS: * In the United States, EMS devices are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A number of reviews have looked at the devices.
Electrical muscle stimulation can be used as a training, therapeutic, or cosmetic tool.
Physical education, also known as Phys Ed., PE, gym, or gym class, and known in many Commonwealth countries as physical training or PT, is an educational course related of maintaining the human body through physical exercises (i.e. calisthenics). It is taken during primary and secondary education and encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health.
The burpee, or squat thrust, is a full-body exercise used in bodybuilding and as an aerobic exercise. The basic movement is performed in four stages and known as the “four-point burpee”:
The exercise was named in the 1930s for the American physiologist Royal H. Burpee, who developed the burpee test. He earned a Ph.D. in Applied Physiology from Columbia University in 1940 and created the “burpee” exercise as part of his doctoral dissertation as a quick and easy way to assess fitness. The exercise was popularized when the United States Armed Services adopted it as a means of assessing the fitness level of recruits when the United States entered the Second World War. Composed of a series of exercises performed in rapid succession, the test was to be a quick measure of agility, coordination and strength.
“Dynamic Tension” is the name given by Charles Atlas to the exercise system that he first popularized in the 1920s. Dynamic Tension is a self-resisting exercise method that pits the muscle against the muscle. . The practitioner tenses the muscles of a given body part and then moves the body part against the tension as if a heavy weight was being lifted. Dynamic tension exercises are not simply isometric, since they call for movement. Instead, the method includes a combination of exercises in three disciplines: isotonic, isokinetic, and some exercises in the isometric discipline. Proponents claim that it is almost impossible to be injured during exercise by using this method because its own muscles provide strength and, as they get tired, the force used also decreases. Similarly, the benefits may continue beyond more traditional exercise methods because as the practitioner strengthens, the exercise becomes more intense. “Dynamic Tension” is a registered trademark of Charles Atlas, Ltd.
The exercise dưỡng sinh or Dưỡng Sinh (compare Chinese Yang-Sheng 養生 ) is a form of partly indigenous breathing and yoga exercise similar to Tai Chi popularized in Vietnam by the historian and political activist Nguyễn Khắc Viện. Viện had been trained as a medical doctor in the field of women’s and children’s psychotherapy. When he himself was given three years to live he turned to practice of traditional breathing exercises. Vietnam News Men battle mortal maladies with sheer willpower (05-11-2006) I first met him in 1963 after he was expelled from France because of his patriotic activities. Before that, back in the 1950s, his Parisian doctors had given him no more than three years to live as he was suffering from pulmonary consumption and was left with just half a lung after seven operations. Turning to Oriental wisdom while retaining the scientific spirit acquired during his many years in the Western world, Vien created and assiduously applied what he called duong sinh (psychosomatic exercises to preserve the vital breath) that kept him alive and kicking until his death in 1997, at the ripe age of 84. However although the name “dưỡng sinh” was popularised by Viện in Từ sinh lý đến dưỡng sinh and other books, the idea of “dưỡng sinh” is well known to village people anyway as a compliment to thuốc Nam herbal medicine.
Dog walking is the act of a person walking with a dog, typically from the dog’s residence and then returning. Both owners and pets receive many benefits. It also provides exercise and companionship for the walker.
In the UK, The Kennel Club conducted a survey of 1,000 dog owners and found that one in five did not walk their dogs on a daily basis. Dogs are walked with a collar around their neck, or a dog harness, or by following their owner by familiarity and verbal control. Commonly the dog is walked by the owner, or another family member, but there are also professional dog walkers.
Dirty dog exercise or hip side lifts or fire hydrant exercise is an exercise that is meant to strengthen the hips and buttocks, without the use of weights. It is so named due to resemblance to the way a dog urinates. The exercise also improves core stability.
DailyBurn is a health and fitness company with a membership of approximately 2.5 million that provides workout and nutrition programs on a variety of web, mobile, and TV apps. DailyBurn streaming workout videos are led by master trainers and produced by Mason Bendewald, the director of Beachbody’s P90X workout program. IAC holds a majority stake in the company. The website has an Apple iPhone and an Apple TV application which was a January App of the Week in the New York Times technology section. It was also named one of the top 100 websites of 2010 by PC Mag.
‘Boxercise’ is a Registered trademark Boxercise is an High Intensity Interval Training class based on boxing started in 1992 by boxing coach Andy Wake. It has grown in popularity since the early 1990s with over 1.2 million participants worldwide workout. Boxercise has become popular as a fitness class and also with personal trainers using padwork to train their clients and bootcamp instructors using the techniques. It differs from boxing in that boxing is a competitive sport whereas Boxercise includes aspects of boxing training but not sparring. Using focus pads / mitts is the most popular style. Boxercise, the company, were selected to work with Muhammad Ali Enterprises in 2011 producing a boxing training program bearing the name Muhammad Ali workout. The classes usually involve group exercise, warm-ups and working as partners using gloves and pads to go through boxing combinations of Jab, Hook, Cross and Uppercut. There is also a focus on the correct stances Orthodox and Southpaw.
BodyCode Training System is a technique for evaluating and correcting movement patterns using specifically designed equipment. It deals with how people construct awkward postures, and how to maintain and apply intervention strategies to correct them. It was developed in the 1990s by Pino Carbone. It is mainly used by dancers and athletes but can be used by anybody. It is among the curricula of Boston Ballet School, the Chinese National Ballet, English National Ballet School, and other private ballet school. BodyCode Training System includes aerobic and anaerobic activities, isometric and isotonic exercises and proprioceptive movement, as well as static and dynamic activities. The specific set of exercises suitable for an individual is designed by a trainer after a postural examination. In 2004, Carbone was awarded Geneva’s international inventor’s prize for designing BodyCode equipment called SpheralMind.
”’Billy’s Bootcamp”’ is an exercise program developed by Billy Blanks. It created a pop culture phenomenon in Japan in 2007, much like Tae Bo did in the U.S. earlier, selling more than 200,000 copies in May of the same year alone. Billy Blanks visited Japan on June 21, 2007 to promote Bootcamp. Upon arrival Blanks was greeted by 200 Japanese fans who affectionately call him “Taicho” (, chief) at Narita International Airport. Blanks appeared on many Japanese TV shows during his ten-day stay in Japan such as SMAP×SMAP where Shingo Katori, a member of popular Japanese boy band SMAP, impersonated Blanks.
Bhastrikā (pronounced bha-STRI-kaah), is an important breath exercise in yoga and pranayama. It is sometimes treated as a kriya or ‘cleansing action’ along with kapalabhati to clear the airways in preparation for other pranayama techniques. Bhastrika involves a rapid and forceful inhalation and exhalation powered by the movement of the diaphragm. The movement of air is accompanied by an audible sound. One inhale and exhale equals one round of bhastrika and it may be repeated for many consecutive rounds. B. K. S. Iyengar explains that the similar “process or kriyā of kapālabhāti is a milder form of Bhastrikā Prāṇāyāma. Swami Sivananda describes the process: “inhale and exhale quickly ten times like the bellows of the blacksmith. Constantly dilate and contract. When you practise this Pranayama a hissing sound is produced. The practitioner should start with rapid expulsions of breath following one another in rapid succession. When the required number of expulsions, say ten for a round, is finished, the final expulsion is followed by a deepest possible inhalation. The breath is suspended as long as it could be done with comfort. Then deepest possible exhalation is done very slowly. The end of this deep exhalation completes one round of Bhastrika”.
The Battle of the Systems was a controversy over the most effective system of exercise and calisthenics that spanned from the 1830s to the early 1920s, consisted of different systems of exercise mostly in a gymnastic or calisthenic-type format. It raged in the United States as states mandated physical education systems.
Started by Johann Guts Muth and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, used large fixed apparatus, vaulting and marching. Jahn felt that physical conditioning was essential for a strong nation. The German system had a “militaristic” view of fitness, with a very strict, formal style of physical training: Jahn’s purpose in promoting what he called the Turnverein movement was to mold the German youth into strong citizens. It was introduced to America by Charles Beck, a German immigrant. Although they were based on the ideas and work of Friedrich Jahn, the American system was less nationalistic.
Barre is a form of physical exercise, usually conducted in group classes in gyms or specialty studios. It is distinguished from other group fitness activities by its use of the ballet barre and its incorporation of movements derived from ballet. These classical dance movements and positions are combined with those drawn from yoga and pilates, and other equipment is sometimes used in addition to the barre, such as resistance bands, yoga straps, exercise balls and hand weights. Barre classes typically focus on small, pulsing movements with emphasis on form, alignment and core engagement. Participants hold their bodies still while contracting specific, targeted sets of muscles in isometric exercises. Repetitions tend to be high, range-of-motion small, and weights, when used, light (1–1.5kg or 2–3 pounds). Barre classes focus on the lower body, developing strength and flexibility from the ankles up though the calves, knees, thighs, and glutes. Holding muscles in contraction for extended periods frequently leads to them shaking as they fatigue. This is particularly true of thighs, as the quadriceps tire. Participants wear activewear similar to that worn in yoga classes, and do the exercises either in bare feet or in socks. Some specialized socks (“grip socks”) include non-slip features to increase traction.
Ballistic training, also called power training, is a form of training which involves throwing weights, and jumping with weights, in order to increase explosive power. The intention in ballistic exercises is to maximise the acceleration phase of the exercise and minimise the deceleration phase. For instance, throwing a medicine ball maximises the acceleration of the weight; this can be contrasted with a standard weight training exercise where there would be a pronounced deceleration phase at the end of the repetition i.e. at the end of a bench press exercise the barbell is decelerated and brought to a halt. Similarly, an athlete jumping whilst holding a trap bar would maximise the acceleration phase in order to gain height; where as they would ordinarily decelerate at the end of a standard trap bar deadlift.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport. People engaged in cycling are referred to as “cyclists”, “bikers”, or less commonly, as “bicyclists”. Apart from two-wheeled bicycles, “cycling” also includes the riding of unicycles, tricycles, quadracycles, recumbent and similar human-powered vehicles (HPVs). Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number approximately one billion worldwide. They are the principal means of transportation in many parts of the world. Cycling is widely regarded as a very effective and efficient mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Bicycles provide numerous benefits in comparison with motor vehicles, including the sustained physical exercise involved in cycling, easier parking, increased maneuverability, and access to roads, bike paths and rural trails. Cycling also offers a reduced consumption of fossil fuels, less air or noise pollution, and much reduced traffic congestion. These lead to less financial cost to the user as well as to society at large (negligible damage to roads, less road area required). By fitting bicycle racks on the front of buses, transit agencies can significantly increase the areas they can serve. Among the disadvantages of cycling are the requirement of bicycles (excepting tricycles or quadracycles) to be balanced by the rider in order to remain upright, the reduced protection in crashes in comparison to motor vehicles, often longer travel time (except in densely populated areas), vulnerability to weather conditions, difficulty in transporting passengers, and the fact that a basic level of fitness is required for cycling moderate to long distances.
CrossFit is a branded fitness regimen created by Greg Glassman and is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. which was founded by Greg Glassman and Lauren Jenai in 2000. Promoted as both a physical exercise philosophy and also as a competitive fitness sport, CrossFit workouts incorporate elements from high-intensity interval training, Olympic weightlifting, plyometrics, powerlifting, gymnastics, girevoy sport, calisthenics, strongman, and other exercises. It is practiced by members of over 13,000 affiliated gyms, roughly half of which are located in the United States, and by individuals who complete daily workouts (otherwise known as “WODs” or “workouts of the day”). CrossFit has come into some controversy for allegedly causing people to suffer from unnecessary injuries and exertional rhabdomyolysis, a condition in which muscle tissues die.
Cross training is sport training in a sport other than the athlete’s usual sport. The goal is to improve overall performance. He takes advantage of the particular efficiency of a training method to cancel the defects of another.
Cross training in sport and fitness involves combining exercises to work the different parts of the body. Often, a particular activity works on some muscle groups, but not on others; Cross training aims to eliminate this imbalance.
Basic stability refers to a person’s ability to stabilize their nucleus. Stability in this context should be considered as an ability to control the position and movement of the nucleus. Thus, if a person has a greater stability of his core, he has greater control over the position and movement of that part of his body. The core of the body is often involved in other body movements, such as limbs, and it is believed that by improving trunk stability, a person’s ability to perform these other movements can also be improved. . The central region of the body is sometimes called the torso or trunk, although there are some differences in the muscles identified as constituting them. The main muscles involved in trunk stability are pelvic floor muscles, transversus abdominis, multifidus, internal and external obliques, rectus abdominis, spinal erectors (sacrospinalis), especially longissimus thoracis and diaphragm. The minor muscles involved include latissimus dorsi, gluteus maximus and trapezius. Notably, breathing, including the action of the diaphragm, can significantly influence the posture and movement of the nucleus; this is particularly evident with respect to the extreme ranges of inhalation and exhalation. On this basis, how a person breathes can influence their ability to control their core. Some researchers have argued that the generation of intra-abdominal pressure, caused by the activation of the trunk muscles and especially the transverse abdomen, can be used to support the lumbar spine. Typically, the nucleus is associated with the body’s center of gravity, which is above the region of the second groups of sacral vertebrae, and the stability is associated with the isometric or static force. In addition, it is the lumbar spine that is primarily responsible for posture and stability, thus providing the necessary strength for stability especially used in dynamic sports.
Cooling (also known as “warming”) (the prescribed event called cooling, cooling or recovery, or warming, in reference to the use combined with warming up) is an easy exercise, done after a more intense activity , allow the body to gradually move to a state of rest or rest. Depending on the intensity of the exercise, cooling may involve slow jogging or walking. With lower intensities, stretching can be used. Cooling allows the heart rate to return to its rest rate. Anecdotal cooling can reduce dizziness in professional or serious athletes and vocal performers after exhausting workouts. Studies are currently inconclusive as to whether the process actually reduces delayed muscle pain and muscle pain not caused by lactate production during strenuous exercise. Some showed a weak correlation: however, the majority of recent studies disrepute the relationship. One study showed that athletes who perform proper cooling are less likely to get hurt.
Continuous training, also known as continuous exercise, is any type of physical training that involves activity without rest intervals. Continuous training can be performed at low, moderate or high exercise intensities, and is often contrasted with interval training, often referred to as high intensity interval training. Some training schemes, such as Fartlek, combine continuous and interval approaches. Exercise modes indicated as appropriate for continuous training include indoor and outdoor cycling, jogging, running, walking, rowing, climbing, simulated climbing, Nordic skiing, elliptical training , aerobics, aerobics, hiking, rollerblading, jumping rope, swimming and water aerobics.
Concentric hypertrophy is a hypertrophic growth of a hollow organ without overall enlargement, in which the walls of the organ are thickened and its capacity or volume is diminished. Sarcomeres are added in parallel, as for example occurs in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In the heart, concentric hypertrophy is related to increased pressure overload of the heart, often due to hypertension and/or aortic stenosis. The consequence is a decrease in ventricular compliance and diastolic dysfunction, followed eventually by ventricular failure and systolic dysfunction. Laplace’s law for a sphere states wall stress (T) is proportionate to the product of the transmural pressure (P) and cavitary radius (r) and inversely proportionate to wall thickness (W): In response to the pressure overload left ventricular wall thickness markedly increases—while the cavitary radius remains relatively unchanged. These compensatory changes, termed “concentric hypertrophy,” reduce the increase in wall tension observed in aortic stenosis.
Complex training, also known as contrast training or post-activation potentiation training, involves the integration of strength training and plyometrics in a training system designed to improve explosive power. According to Jace Derwin: Complex training relies upon the performance of a strength exercise, often resistance based, followed by a plyometric exercise. The strength and the plyometric exercise are usually biomechanically similar i.e. they move through similar ranges of movement. For example, a back squat followed by a box jump; or a bench press exercise followed by a jumping clap push up. Such a combination is referred to as a pair or a contrast pair. The resistance based exercise will often be a near maximal effort- about 75-90% of the athlete’s maximal lift. The plyometric portion of the training should be completed in an explosive manner. Sets are often used. Between the performance of the strength exercise and the plyometric exercise there is between a 3-12 minute rest period; opinions vary on the most efficient length. As the muscles have been intensely activated by the strength exercise, this develops in the muscles a greater potential to apply force than they would have normally. This added potential to apply force is called post-activation potentiation (PAP). It is the fundamental basis of complex training. This potential to apply force, generated by the strength exercise, is utilised by the athlete in the plyometric exercise to boost their power output to a level greater than it otherwise would have been had they been doing plyometrics alone. In this way, the plyometric exercise can be performed more powerfully. For instance, an athlete may jump higher after they have completed a back squat at 90% maximal lift, had a rest for 3-12 minutes, and then jumped; as opposed to only jumping, where they would not get this improvement. The length of the rest period is chosen to be long enough to allow the athlete to recover after the strength exercise, whilst also being short enough to allow for the high degree of muscle activation to be utilised in the plyometric exercise.
Closed kinetic chain exercises or closed chain exercises (CKC) are physical exercises performed where the hand (for arm movement) or foot (for leg movement) is fixed in space and cannot move. The extremity remains in constant contact with the immobile surface, usually the ground or the base of a machine. The opposite of CKC exercises are open kinetic chain exercises (OKC). Closed chain exercises are often compound movements, that generally incur compressive forces, while open-chain exercises are often isolation movements that promote more shearing forces. CKC exercises involve more than one muscle group and joint simultaneously rather than concentrating solely on one, as many OKC exercises do (single-joint movements), lending the former to more utilitarian and athletic activities.
Circuit training is a form of body conditioning or endurance training or resistance training using high-intensity. It targets strength building or muscular endurance. An exercise “circuit” is one completion of all prescribed exercises in the program. When one circuit is complete, one begins the first exercise again for the next circuit. Traditionally, the time between exercises in circuit training is short, often with rapid movement to the next exercise. The program was developed by R.E. Morgan and G.T. Anderson in 1953 at the University of Leeds in England.
A circuit should work each section of the body individually. Typical activities include: Upper-body
Chinese Wand Exercise is an obscure ancient exercise system, related to the martial art Kung Fu. The “wand” in Chinese Wand Exercise is a 48-50” long dowel, 1” in diameter, (wood or bamboo, for example), used as a fulcrum for balance, form and posture. “It’s the pyramid effect, with you as center.” “Seventeen gentle bending, twisting and lunging movements flow in exact order, specially designed to get the blood circulating more efficiently throughout the body. These exercises are done in gradual, easy ‘Stages’ while using an original Chinese deep-breathing technique” and chi energy, and can be easy or more challenging as the individual chooses. Together they exercise every major muscle in the body and take no more than 20 minutes to complete. The relative ease of the 17 moves (11 standing and six floor exercises) engage all the organs and muscles of the body together in harmony rather than separating out one part of the body from another. This produces a more efficient way of staying fit and healthy by increasing and balancing the chi energy. “Chinese Wand prevents illness and delays the aging process of many cells.” Together, they exercise the entire body safely and gently. Chinese Wand was known as a “preventive” of disease while acupuncture was the “treatment.”
ChiBall is a body-mind exercise and wellness program based on the principles of traditional Chinese medicine. A ChiBall class combines the modalities of Tai Chi-Qi Gong, Dance, Yoga, Pilates, Feldenkrais and Relaxation / Meditation with inspiring music.
Camp Gladiator is an outdoor group fitness program that offers four week training camp style workouts. The company is based in Austin, Texas, with additional locations in Texas, Colorado, North Carolina, Louisiana and Florida.
Camp Gladiator was founded by co-CEOs Ally and Jeff Davidson in 2008 in Dallas, Texas. That year, the morning of their wedding, Ally auditioned for the NBC reality show, American Gladiators. She was one of 40 selected and became the Women’s Champion of Season 2. With $ 100,000 in prizes, they launched Camp Gladiator. In 2009, they moved the headquarters to Austin, Texas.
The Callanetics exercise programme was created by Callan Pinckney in the early 1980s. It is a system of exercise involving frequent repetition of small muscular movements and squeezes, designed to improve muscle tone. The programme was developed by Pinckney from classical ballet exercises, to help ease a back problem that she was born with. The theory of callanetics is that the surface muscles of the body are supported by deeper muscles, but popular exercise programmes often exercise only the surface muscles. According to callanetics, deeper muscles are best exercised using small but precise movements. Exercising the deeper muscles also leads to improved posture, which may result in the appearance of weight loss even if very little weight was lost. Pinckney also recommends exercising with clothing that highlights (not flatters) the body’s natural shape, and exercising in bright light, to show up the body’s imperfections to the exerciser.
Calisthenics (American English) or Callisthenics (English Commonwealth) are exercises consisting of a variety of gross motor movements – running, standing, grasping, pushing, etc. – often done rhythmically and with a minimum of equipment, so basically, bodyweight exercises. They are intended to increase body strength, body fitness and flexibility, by such movements as pulling or pushing, bending, jumping, or swinging, using only his body weight for resistance; usually conducted in conjunction with stretching. When practiced vigorously and with great variety, Swedish gymnastics can offer the benefits of muscle and aerobic conditioning, as well as improving psychomotor skills such as balance, agility and coordination. Many consider callisthenia as a “movement through space”, which means that you can move freely without any restrictions blocking your full strength. Urban gymnastics is a form of street training; Swedish gymnastics groups perform exercise routines in urban areas. Individuals and groups train to be able to perform advanced gymnastic skills such as muscles, bars, and front and back levers. Sports teams and military units often perform group-led group gymnastics as a form of synchronized physical training (often including a call-and-response routine) to increase group cohesion and discipline. Swedish gymnastics is also popular as a component of physical education in primary and secondary schools in much of the globe. In addition to general fitness, gymnastic exercises are often used as basic physical assessments for many military organizations, such as the US Army Fitness Test and U.S.M.C. Fitness test.
The Aviva method is a physical exercise system that claims to stimulate related glands for optimal secretion of reproductive hormone. The name of the method is given by its developer, Aviva Gabriella Steiner, an Israeli ballet dancer of Hungarian origin and a teacher of physical education. The Aviva method is a registered trademark within the European Union: it can not be used without the approval of the Aviva Foundation. The registration of the mark can be found on the website of the European Union Intellectual Property Office: https://www.oami.europa.eu/eSearch/#basic/1+1+1+ 1/50 + 50 + 50 + 50 / Aviva% 20Method
Teachers of the Aviva method claim to have good results with a loose pelvic floor, incontinence, PCOS, an irregular menstrual cycle and menstrual problems, fertility.
Athletic training has been recognized by the American Medical Association (AMA) as an allied health care profession since June 1991. “Athletic training is practiced by athletic trainers, health care professionals who collaborate with physicians to optimize activity and participation of patients and clients. Athletic training encompasses the prevention, diagnosis, and intervention of emergency, acute and chronic medical conditions involving impairment, functional limitations and disabilities.” There are five domains of athletic training listed in the 7th edition (2015) of the Athletic Training Practice Analysis:
An assault course (also called a compensation trail) is a kind of special track that combines running and exercise. He was more popular in the 1970s than now. It is heavily used in military training. The main use is to evaluate progress and weaknesses within the team involved.
Assault classes are used in military training to improve fitness, to demonstrate techniques that can be used to cross very rough terrain, and to increase teamwork and self-confidence. Often military assault courses will be standardized and will have, for example (in the UK), a six foot and ten foot wall, a climbing net, a type of climbing bar, and a rope or net must be crossed (these being or representing the most likely difficult terrain that a soldier will encounter). Standardization means that each course will be of the same quality, but it also means that there will be some parts that may be familiar if practiced. However, they have different goals. For example, they can be short (less than a minute) with a beach at the end (eg Junior Leaders, Folkestone), or long (five minutes) as in Thetford. This is partly because of spatial constraints and training objectives. The short can be run as an individual course and a warm up for the range. The long course of Thetford is more of an exercise in endurance and teamwork.
Asahi (or Asahi Health) is a Finnish health exercise based on the eastern traditions of T’ai chi ch’uan, qigong, yiquan and yoga, with a western scientific viewpoint. Asahi is designed to suit everybody, regardless of physical condition or age. Asahi exercise is taught and performed in instructed groups, but Asahi can also be performed alone as a form of daily self-treatment. Asahi exercise is ideal for short breaks.
AntiGravity Fitness is a fitness company founded by Christopher Harrison in 2007 and based in New York City, specializing in hybrid aerial fitness techniques that combine silk hammocks with yoga practices, Pilates, ballet barre exercises, and traditional strength training techniques into different exercise curriculums. Harrison first developed the initial program, AntiGravity Aerial Yoga, based on backstage warm-up exercises through which he would lead his athletes as director/choreographer of the performance troupe AntiGravity, Inc. Since 2007, Harrison has developed seven proprietary fitness programs under the AntiGravity Fitness brand, currently licensed in fitness centers in over 40 countries. AntiGravity Fitness also operates instructor training programs as part of their licensing agreements, certifying others to teach AntiGravity Fitness techniques.
Allsport GPS was a fitness tracking phone application combined with a website. As of March 2016, it was discontinued and services were shut down. It uses GPS to provide performance statistics and is run on a GPS-enabled cell phone. The GPS gives Allsport GPS a precise way of measuring statistics such as pace, speed, time and distance. Users can view their route overlaid on a map. The application is used for fitness training regimes and goal tracking. The workout information uploads to the Allsport GPS website wirelessly. In 2006 Allsport GPS introduced the ability to view workouts in the Trimble Outdoors Google Earth layer.
Agility drills are used in the aim of improving sports agility, which is the ability to change direction and accelerate while in motion. The ability to change direction while in motion is very important in many sports but especially in team and dual sports. For example, a footballer running back must be able to quickly change direction when he sees an opponent preparing to tackle him and must be able to quickly change directions when dribbling the ball, attempting to get back on defense, or when trying to beat an opponent to the ball. A tennis player must be able to quickly change directions when moving to a position where the ball is expected to go but instead finds the ball going in a different direction.
Agility or nimbleness is the ability to change the body’s position efficiently, and requires the integration of isolated movement skills using a combination of balance, coordination, speed, reflexes, strength, and endurance. Agility is the ability to change the direction of the body in an efficient and effective manner and to achieve this requires a combination of Agility is also an important attribute in many role playing games, both video games such as Pokémon, and tabletop games such as Dungeons & Dragons. Agility may affect the character’s ability to evade an enemy’s attack or land their own, or pickpocket and pick locks.
Aerobics is a form of physical exercise that combines rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretching and strength training routines with the goal of improving all elements of fitness (flexibility, muscular strength, and cardio-vascular fitness). It is usually performed to music and may be practiced in a group setting led by an instructor (fitness professional), although it can be done solo and without musical accompaniment. With the goal of preventing illness and promoting physical fitness, practitioners perform various routines comprising a number of different dance-like exercises. Formal aerobics classes are divided into different levels of intensity and complexity. A well-balanced aerobics class will have five components: warm-up (5–10 minutes), cardio vascular conditioning (25–30 minutes), muscular strength and conditioning (10–15 minutes), cool-down (5–8 minutes) and stretching and flexibility (5–8 minutes). Aerobics classes may allow participants to select their level of participation according to their fitness level. Many gyms offer a variety of aerobic classes. Each class is designed for a certain level of experience and taught by a certified instructor with a specialty area related to their particular class.
Active stretching eliminates the force and its detrimental effects of stretching procedures. Active stretching stimulates and prepares muscles to use during exercise. Active stretching not only stretches muscles and tissues, but prepares muscles for action by activating and warming them up. Before describing the principles on which active stretching is based, the terms agonist and antagonist must be clarified. The agonist refers to the active contraction of muscles or muscles while their opposing muscles are called antagonists. The neuromechanisms conceptualized by Sir Charles Sherrington (1857-1956), “the philosopher of the nervous system,” apply to active stretching. Although necessary for ordinary sports and movement, this protective reaction is counterproductive for muscle elongation.
Role of exercise is a way of life that integrates physical activity into your everyday routines, such as walking to the store or biking to work. Active living brings together urban planners, architects, transportation engineers, public health professionals, activists and other professionals to build places that encourage active living and physical activity. One example includes efforts to build sidewalks, crosswalks, pedestrian crossing signals and other ways for children to walk safely to and from school, as seen in the Safe Routes to School program. Recreational opportunities (parks, fitness centres etc.) close to the home or workplace, walking trails and bike lanes for transportation also encourage a more active lifestyle. Active living is a combination of physical activity and recreation activities aimed at the general public to encourage a healthier lifestyle.
The ACSM American Fitness Index Program (Fitness Index) is an initiative of the American College of Sports Medicine that aims to quantitatively measure the overall health and fitness level of American metropolitan areas. The measure is a composite of indicators for personal health and community resources for physical activity. The first report, completed in May 2008, ranked the 15 most populous metropolitan areas in the nation, along with Greater Indianapolis (where the ACSM is based). Today, the 50 most populous metropolitan areas are ranked annually. As of 2017, the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI metro area holds the top ranking with Louisville/Jeffersion County, KY-IN . Besides a simple ranking, the Fitness Index provides individual reports for ranked metro areas, detailing how each score was assigned. This is in keeping with the Fitness Index’s stated goal of arming local policy-makers with the information necessary to improve the health, fitness and quality of life of community residents by promoting healthier lifestyles and physical activity .